Abstract

We calculate the efficiency with which a surface polariton at a metal–dielectric interface is excited when a p-polarized volume electromagnetic wave is incident upon the end face of the metal–dielectric system that is normal to the interface. We find generation efficiencies of approximately 90%.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. M. Agranovich, D. L. Mills, eds., Surface Polaritons (North-Holland, Amsterdam,. 1982).
  2. A. D. Boardman, ed., Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  3. H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. I. Stegeman, A. A. Maradudin, T. S. Rahman, Phys. Rev. B 23, 2576 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. M. Anderson, in Proceedings of the Sixteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1982), pp. 371–377.
  6. G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 906 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 906 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

G. I. Stegeman, A. A. Maradudin, T. S. Rahman, Phys. Rev. B 23, 2576 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, L. M.

L. M. Anderson, in Proceedings of the Sixteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1982), pp. 371–377.

Burke, J. J.

G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 906 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 906 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. P.

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

G. I. Stegeman, A. A. Maradudin, T. S. Rahman, Phys. Rev. B 23, 2576 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Milton, A. F.

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, T. S.

G. I. Stegeman, A. A. Maradudin, T. S. Rahman, Phys. Rev. B 23, 2576 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 906 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, A. A. Maradudin, T. S. Rahman, Phys. Rev. B 23, 2576 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 906 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. I. Stegeman, A. A. Maradudin, T. S. Rahman, Phys. Rev. B 23, 2576 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L. M. Anderson, in Proceedings of the Sixteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1982), pp. 371–377.

V. M. Agranovich, D. L. Mills, eds., Surface Polaritons (North-Holland, Amsterdam,. 1982).

A. D. Boardman, ed., Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, New York, 1982).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the system studied in this Letter. The grounding planes at x = d and x = −d cause the propagating modes to be discrete rather than continuous.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the surface polariton generation efficiency on the structure width f for ωp/ω = 4 and d = 1. The plateau regions are indicative of the results for the semi-infinite medium case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The surface polariton generation efficiency as a function of focusing and alignment parameters: (a) variation with incident beam width α0Δh for an aperture that extends from x3 = 0 to x3 = Δh, where α0 is the decay constant of the surface polariton in the region x1 > 0, 0 < x3 < d; (b) variation with the position of the h0 center of the optimum aperture for Δh = 1/α0. In both cases ωp/ω = 4, d = 1, and f = 6.7.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Percentage of the incident radiation converted into the surface polariton, and into all propagating waves traveling to the right of x1 = 0, as a function of the difference Δ = d − 1 between the dielectric constant of the vacuum and the dielectric above the polariton active medium d. The calculations are carried out for ωp/ω = 4 and f = 6.7, and the width and position of the incident beam are optimized for each value of d.

Equations (3)

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H < ( x , t ) = x ˆ 2 [ m = 0 a m ( 1 ) H 2 ( m ) ( x 1 x 3 | ω ) + m = 0 R m ( 1 ) H ¯ 2 ( m ) ( x 1 x 3 | ω ) ] e i ω t .
a 0 = Δ h β 0 d , a m = 4 m π β m cos [ γ m ( h 0 d ) ] sin γ m Δ h 2
H > ( x , t ) = x ˆ 2 [ t ( 2 ) H 2 ( 0 ) ( x 1 x 3 | ω ) + m = 1 T m ( 2 ) H 2 ( m ) ( x 1 x 3 | ω ) ] e i ω t .

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