Abstract

Spatially resolved temperature measurements in a CH4–air flame have been achieved using two-line laser-induced fluorescence from indium atoms seeded to the flame.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion diagnostics by laser Raman and fluorescence techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Crosley, ed., Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, ACS Symposium Series 134 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Bechtel, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Laser diagnostics of flames, combustion products and sprays,” Proc. IEEE 70, 658 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Aldén, H. Edner, G. Holmstedt, S. Svanberg, T. Högberg, “Single-pulse laser-induced OH fluorescence in an atmospheric flame, spatially resolved with a diode array detector,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1236 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. J. Dyer, D. R. Crosley, “Two-dimensional imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in a flame,” Opt. Lett. 7, 382 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Kychakoff, R. D. Howe, R. K. Hansen, J. C. McDaniel, “Quantitative visualization of combustion species in a plane,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3225 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, spatially resolved monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/O2 flame using a diode array detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Haragushi, B. Smith, S. Weeks, D. J. Johnsson, J. D. Winefordner, “Measurements of small volume flame temperatures by the two-line atomic fluorescence method,” Appl. Spectrosc. 31, 156 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Omenetto, P. Benetti, G. Rossi, “Flame temperature measurements by means of atomic fluorescence spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta 27B, 453 (1972).
  10. G. C. Alessandretti, S. Benecchi, F. Cignoli, “Raman and fluorescence temperature measurements in premixed flames,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2765 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, N. Omenetto, S. Nikdel, K. Fujiwara, J. D. Winefordner, “Plasma temperature measurements by laser-induced fluorescence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 27D (1979).
  12. R. G. Joklik, J. W. Daily, “Two-line atomic fluorescence temperature measurements in flames: an experimental study,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4158 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. P. Penkin, L. N. Shabanova, “Oscillator strengths of spectral lines of the aluminum, gallium and indium atoms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 14, 5 (1963).
  14. M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) applied in combustion probing,” Phys. Scr. 27, 29 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation and Temperature (Chapman and Hall, London, 1979).
  16. J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, S. Weeks, K. Fujiwara, N. Omenetto, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, “Application of the two line atomic fluorescence technique to the temporal measurement of small volume flat temperatures,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. (U.S.) Pub.561, 1079 (1978).

1983 (1)

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) applied in combustion probing,” Phys. Scr. 27, 29 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (6)

1981 (1)

1979 (2)

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, N. Omenetto, S. Nikdel, K. Fujiwara, J. D. Winefordner, “Plasma temperature measurements by laser-induced fluorescence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 27D (1979).

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion diagnostics by laser Raman and fluorescence techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1972 (1)

N. Omenetto, P. Benetti, G. Rossi, “Flame temperature measurements by means of atomic fluorescence spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta 27B, 453 (1972).

1963 (1)

N. P. Penkin, L. N. Shabanova, “Oscillator strengths of spectral lines of the aluminum, gallium and indium atoms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 14, 5 (1963).

Aldén, M.

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) applied in combustion probing,” Phys. Scr. 27, 29 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, G. Holmstedt, S. Svanberg, T. Högberg, “Single-pulse laser-induced OH fluorescence in an atmospheric flame, spatially resolved with a diode array detector,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1236 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, spatially resolved monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/O2 flame using a diode array detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alessandretti, G. C.

Bechtel, J. H.

J. H. Bechtel, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Laser diagnostics of flames, combustion products and sprays,” Proc. IEEE 70, 658 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Benecchi, S.

Benetti, P.

N. Omenetto, P. Benetti, G. Rossi, “Flame temperature measurements by means of atomic fluorescence spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta 27B, 453 (1972).

Bonczyk, P. A.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion diagnostics by laser Raman and fluorescence techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bower, J.

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, N. Omenetto, S. Nikdel, K. Fujiwara, J. D. Winefordner, “Plasma temperature measurements by laser-induced fluorescence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 27D (1979).

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, S. Weeks, K. Fujiwara, N. Omenetto, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, “Application of the two line atomic fluorescence technique to the temporal measurement of small volume flat temperatures,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. (U.S.) Pub.561, 1079 (1978).

Bradshaw, J.

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, N. Omenetto, S. Nikdel, K. Fujiwara, J. D. Winefordner, “Plasma temperature measurements by laser-induced fluorescence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 27D (1979).

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, S. Weeks, K. Fujiwara, N. Omenetto, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, “Application of the two line atomic fluorescence technique to the temporal measurement of small volume flat temperatures,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. (U.S.) Pub.561, 1079 (1978).

Chraplyvy, A. R.

J. H. Bechtel, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Laser diagnostics of flames, combustion products and sprays,” Proc. IEEE 70, 658 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cignoli, F.

Crosley, D. R.

Daily, J. W.

Dyer, M. J.

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion diagnostics by laser Raman and fluorescence techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) applied in combustion probing,” Phys. Scr. 27, 29 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, G. Holmstedt, S. Svanberg, T. Högberg, “Single-pulse laser-induced OH fluorescence in an atmospheric flame, spatially resolved with a diode array detector,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1236 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, spatially resolved monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/O2 flame using a diode array detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, K.

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, N. Omenetto, S. Nikdel, K. Fujiwara, J. D. Winefordner, “Plasma temperature measurements by laser-induced fluorescence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 27D (1979).

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, S. Weeks, K. Fujiwara, N. Omenetto, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, “Application of the two line atomic fluorescence technique to the temporal measurement of small volume flat temperatures,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. (U.S.) Pub.561, 1079 (1978).

Gaydon, A. G.

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation and Temperature (Chapman and Hall, London, 1979).

Hansen, R. K.

Haraguchi, H.

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, S. Weeks, K. Fujiwara, N. Omenetto, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, “Application of the two line atomic fluorescence technique to the temporal measurement of small volume flat temperatures,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. (U.S.) Pub.561, 1079 (1978).

Haragushi, H.

Högberg, T.

Holmstedt, G.

Howe, R. D.

Johnsson, D. J.

Joklik, R. G.

Kychakoff, G.

McDaniel, J. C.

Nikdel, S.

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, N. Omenetto, S. Nikdel, K. Fujiwara, J. D. Winefordner, “Plasma temperature measurements by laser-induced fluorescence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 27D (1979).

Omenetto, N.

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, N. Omenetto, S. Nikdel, K. Fujiwara, J. D. Winefordner, “Plasma temperature measurements by laser-induced fluorescence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 27D (1979).

N. Omenetto, P. Benetti, G. Rossi, “Flame temperature measurements by means of atomic fluorescence spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta 27B, 453 (1972).

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, S. Weeks, K. Fujiwara, N. Omenetto, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, “Application of the two line atomic fluorescence technique to the temporal measurement of small volume flat temperatures,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. (U.S.) Pub.561, 1079 (1978).

Penkin, N. P.

N. P. Penkin, L. N. Shabanova, “Oscillator strengths of spectral lines of the aluminum, gallium and indium atoms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 14, 5 (1963).

Rossi, G.

N. Omenetto, P. Benetti, G. Rossi, “Flame temperature measurements by means of atomic fluorescence spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta 27B, 453 (1972).

Shabanova, L. N.

N. P. Penkin, L. N. Shabanova, “Oscillator strengths of spectral lines of the aluminum, gallium and indium atoms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 14, 5 (1963).

Smith, B.

Svanberg, S.

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) applied in combustion probing,” Phys. Scr. 27, 29 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, spatially resolved monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/O2 flame using a diode array detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, G. Holmstedt, S. Svanberg, T. Högberg, “Single-pulse laser-induced OH fluorescence in an atmospheric flame, spatially resolved with a diode array detector,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1236 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verdieck, J. F.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion diagnostics by laser Raman and fluorescence techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, S.

H. Haragushi, B. Smith, S. Weeks, D. J. Johnsson, J. D. Winefordner, “Measurements of small volume flame temperatures by the two-line atomic fluorescence method,” Appl. Spectrosc. 31, 156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, S. Weeks, K. Fujiwara, N. Omenetto, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, “Application of the two line atomic fluorescence technique to the temporal measurement of small volume flat temperatures,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. (U.S.) Pub.561, 1079 (1978).

Winefordner, J. D.

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, N. Omenetto, S. Nikdel, K. Fujiwara, J. D. Winefordner, “Plasma temperature measurements by laser-induced fluorescence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 27D (1979).

H. Haragushi, B. Smith, S. Weeks, D. J. Johnsson, J. D. Winefordner, “Measurements of small volume flame temperatures by the two-line atomic fluorescence method,” Appl. Spectrosc. 31, 156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, S. Weeks, K. Fujiwara, N. Omenetto, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, “Application of the two line atomic fluorescence technique to the temporal measurement of small volume flat temperatures,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. (U.S.) Pub.561, 1079 (1978).

Wolfard, H. G.

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation and Temperature (Chapman and Hall, London, 1979).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, spatially resolved monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/O2 flame using a diode array detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, N. Omenetto, S. Nikdel, K. Fujiwara, J. D. Winefordner, “Plasma temperature measurements by laser-induced fluorescence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 27D (1979).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

N. P. Penkin, L. N. Shabanova, “Oscillator strengths of spectral lines of the aluminum, gallium and indium atoms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 14, 5 (1963).

Phys. Scr. (1)

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) applied in combustion probing,” Phys. Scr. 27, 29 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. H. Bechtel, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Laser diagnostics of flames, combustion products and sprays,” Proc. IEEE 70, 658 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion diagnostics by laser Raman and fluorescence techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

N. Omenetto, P. Benetti, G. Rossi, “Flame temperature measurements by means of atomic fluorescence spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta 27B, 453 (1972).

Other (3)

D. R. Crosley, ed., Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, ACS Symposium Series 134 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation and Temperature (Chapman and Hall, London, 1979).

J. Bradshaw, J. Bower, S. Weeks, K. Fujiwara, N. Omenetto, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, “Application of the two line atomic fluorescence technique to the temporal measurement of small volume flat temperatures,” Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. (U.S.) Pub.561, 1079 (1978).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used in the space-resolved two-line fluorescence temperature measurements. The gated electronics used for the spectral-distribution recordings are omitted for simplicity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A single-shot distribution of the fluorescence light at a height of 20 mm above the burner head when 410-nm laser excitation and detection at 450 nm are used. The peak to the right is used for laser-intensity normalization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Space-resolved temperature profile 30 mm above the burner head using 100 laser pulses from each 450–410-nm beam.

Equations (4)

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T = Δ E k { 1 / ln [ F 1 L 2 F 2 L 1 , g 2 ( ν 2 ) η 1 ( g f ) 2 g 1 ( ν 1 ) η 2 ( g f ) 1 ] } ,
( g f ) 1 / ( g f ) 2 0.46
g 2 ( ν 2 ) / g 1 ( ν 1 ) = 1.5
T = 3183 [ 1 / ln ( F 1 L 2 F 2 L 1 1.96 ) ] K ,

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