Abstract

We report the observation of strong reshaping of 3-psec dye-laser pulses by nonlinear birefringence during passage through a 150-cm-long, single-mode optical fiber and a crossed polarizer. For lower-intensity input pulses to the fiber, the transmitted pulses were observed to be proportional to the cube of the input pulses. With increased intensity, more-complicated pulse shapes were obtained. Our experimental results agree well with the predicted intensity dependence of the reshaping action.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 801 (1965).
  2. A. Owyoung, R. W. Hellwarth, N. George, “Intensity induced changes in optical polarizations in glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 628 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, “Optical Kerr effect in glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 294 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. H. Stolen, J. Botineau, A. Ashkin, “Intensity discrimination of optical pulses with birefringent fibers,” Opt. Lett. 7, 512 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. In our case, the linear and nonlinear birefringence did not disappear at the same input polarization angle. Thus this method permitted measurement of the nonlinear birefringence without additional compensation for the linear birefringence.
  7. J. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. In fitting the transmitted pulses of Fig. 3, a small fraction of the input pulse P0(t) was added to account for the leakage of unreshaped input light through the polarizer. This component amounted to 0.8% of the fit for Pm = 650 W and 2.5% of the fit at Pm = 250 W and was consistent with our measured extinction ratio.

1982 (2)

J. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, J. Botineau, A. Ashkin, “Intensity discrimination of optical pulses with birefringent fibers,” Opt. Lett. 7, 512 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, “Optical Kerr effect in glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 294 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. Owyoung, R. W. Hellwarth, N. George, “Intensity induced changes in optical polarizations in glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 628 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 801 (1965).

Ashkin, A.

Barlow, A. J.

J. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Botineau, J.

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

George, N.

A. Owyoung, R. W. Hellwarth, N. George, “Intensity induced changes in optical polarizations in glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 628 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. W.

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

A. Owyoung, R. W. Hellwarth, N. George, “Intensity induced changes in optical polarizations in glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 628 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 801 (1965).

Owyoung, A.

A. Owyoung, R. W. Hellwarth, N. George, “Intensity induced changes in optical polarizations in glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 628 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Payne, J. N.

J. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ramskov Hansen, J. J.

J. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 801 (1965).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, “Optical Kerr effect in glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 294 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 801 (1965).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Owyoung, R. W. Hellwarth, N. George, “Intensity induced changes in optical polarizations in glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 628 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

In fitting the transmitted pulses of Fig. 3, a small fraction of the input pulse P0(t) was added to account for the leakage of unreshaped input light through the polarizer. This component amounted to 0.8% of the fit for Pm = 650 W and 2.5% of the fit at Pm = 250 W and was consistent with our measured extinction ratio.

In our case, the linear and nonlinear birefringence did not disappear at the same input polarization angle. Thus this method permitted measurement of the nonlinear birefringence without additional compensation for the linear birefringence.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured autocorrelated input pulse. (b) Measured autocorrelation of the reshaped transmitted pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calculated input pulse P0(t). (b) Comparison between autocorrelation of P0(t) (line) and measured input pulse (circles). (c) Solid line, calculated transmitted pulse Pt(t) with ϕm = 3.8; dashed line, calculated input pulse P0(t). (d) Comparison between autocorrelation of Pt(t) (solid line) and measured transmitted pulse (circles) at an input power of 650 W. The dashed line is the autocorrelation of P0(t). (e) Solid line, calculated transmitted pulse Pt(t) with ϕm = 1.4, dashed line, P0(t). (f) Comparison between autocorrelation of Pt(t) (solid line) and measured transmitted pulse (circles) at an input power of 250 W. The dashed line is the autocorrelation of P0(t).

Equations (3)

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P t ( t ) = P 0 ( t ) sin 2 ( ϕ / 2 ) sin 2 ( 2 θ ) ,
P t ( t ) ~ P 0 ( t ) sin 2 [ ϕ ( t ) / 2 ] ,
ϕ ( t ) = ϕ m [ P 0 ( t ) / P m ] ,

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