Abstract

Several microwatts of tunable cw radiation near 194 nm in a linewidth of less than 2 MHz have been generated by sum-frequency mixing the radiation from a frequency-doubled argon-ion laser with the radiation from a ring dye laser in a crystal of potassium pentaborate. An external ring cavity resonant with the dye laser gives an enhancement factor of about 14 in the sum-frequency-generated radiation power. The Doppler-limited absorption spectrum of the 6s 2S1/2–6p 2P1/2 first resonance line of natural Hg ii has been resolved, and the vacuum wave number for the mass-202 isotope has been measured to be 51485.904(20) cm−1.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings of 35th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (Electronic Industries Associates, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. 602–611; F. G. Major, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1155–1158 (1973); M. D. McGuire, R. Petsch, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1999–2004 (1978); M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, R. Barillet, J. Viennet, P. Petit, C. Audoin, Appl. Phys. 24, 107–112 (1981); L. S. Cutler, R. F. Gifford, M. D. McGuire, in Proceedings of Thirteenth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Applications and Planning Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1981, NASA Conf Pub. 2220 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1982), pp. 563–578; P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, F. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639–1642 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. E. Stickel, F. B. Dunning, Appl. Opt. 17, 981–982 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. E. Stickel, S. Blit, G. F. Hildebrandt, E. D. Dahl, F. B. Dunning, F. K. Tittle, Appl. Opt, 17, 2270 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. R. Freeman, G. C. Bjorklund, N. P. Economou, P. F. Liao, J. E. Bjorkholm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 739–742 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Bergquist, H. Hemmati, W. M. Itano, Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  7. T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Couillaud, Ph. Dabkiewicz, L. A. Bloomfield, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 7, 265–267 (1982).
  9. H. J. Dewey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 303–306 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. R. Cook, L. M. Hubby, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 72–73 (1976); F. B. Dunning, R. E. Stickel, Appl. Opt. 15, 3131–3134 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Guern, A. Bideau-Méhu, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, Phys. Scr. 14, 273–276 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Spieweck, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 361–363 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. L. Hall, S. A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367–369 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Edlén, Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (1)

B. Couillaud, Ph. Dabkiewicz, L. A. Bloomfield, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 7, 265–267 (1982).

1980 (2)

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. Spieweck, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 361–363 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (4)

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639–1642 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Stickel, F. B. Dunning, Appl. Opt. 17, 981–982 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Stickel, S. Blit, G. F. Hildebrandt, E. D. Dahl, F. B. Dunning, F. K. Tittle, Appl. Opt, 17, 2270 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Freeman, G. C. Bjorklund, N. P. Economou, P. F. Liao, J. E. Bjorkholm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 739–742 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Y. Guern, A. Bideau-Méhu, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, Phys. Scr. 14, 273–276 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

H. J. Dewey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 303–306 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Cook, L. M. Hubby, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 72–73 (1976); F. B. Dunning, R. E. Stickel, Appl. Opt. 15, 3131–3134 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Hall, S. A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367–369 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

B. Edlén, Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abjean, R.

Y. Guern, A. Bideau-Méhu, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, Phys. Scr. 14, 273–276 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

J. C. Bergquist, H. Hemmati, W. M. Itano, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings of 35th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (Electronic Industries Associates, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. 602–611; F. G. Major, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1155–1158 (1973); M. D. McGuire, R. Petsch, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1999–2004 (1978); M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, R. Barillet, J. Viennet, P. Petit, C. Audoin, Appl. Phys. 24, 107–112 (1981); L. S. Cutler, R. F. Gifford, M. D. McGuire, in Proceedings of Thirteenth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Applications and Planning Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1981, NASA Conf Pub. 2220 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1982), pp. 563–578; P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, F. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bideau-Méhu, A.

Y. Guern, A. Bideau-Méhu, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, Phys. Scr. 14, 273–276 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

R. R. Freeman, G. C. Bjorklund, N. P. Economou, P. F. Liao, J. E. Bjorkholm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 739–742 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

R. R. Freeman, G. C. Bjorklund, N. P. Economou, P. F. Liao, J. E. Bjorkholm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 739–742 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Blit, S.

R. E. Stickel, S. Blit, G. F. Hildebrandt, E. D. Dahl, F. B. Dunning, F. K. Tittle, Appl. Opt, 17, 2270 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloomfield, L. A.

B. Couillaud, Ph. Dabkiewicz, L. A. Bloomfield, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 7, 265–267 (1982).

Cook, W. R.

Couillaud, B.

B. Couillaud, Ph. Dabkiewicz, L. A. Bloomfield, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 7, 265–267 (1982).

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dabkiewicz, Ph.

B. Couillaud, Ph. Dabkiewicz, L. A. Bloomfield, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 7, 265–267 (1982).

Dahl, E. D.

R. E. Stickel, S. Blit, G. F. Hildebrandt, E. D. Dahl, F. B. Dunning, F. K. Tittle, Appl. Opt, 17, 2270 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewey, H. J.

H. J. Dewey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 303–306 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639–1642 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Dunning, F. B.

R. E. Stickel, F. B. Dunning, Appl. Opt. 17, 981–982 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Stickel, S. Blit, G. F. Hildebrandt, E. D. Dahl, F. B. Dunning, F. K. Tittle, Appl. Opt, 17, 2270 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, N. P.

R. R. Freeman, G. C. Bjorklund, N. P. Economou, P. F. Liao, J. E. Bjorkholm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 739–742 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

R. R. Freeman, G. C. Bjorklund, N. P. Economou, P. F. Liao, J. E. Bjorkholm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 739–742 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Guern, Y.

Y. Guern, A. Bideau-Méhu, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, Phys. Scr. 14, 273–276 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, S. A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367–369 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

B. Couillaud, Ph. Dabkiewicz, L. A. Bloomfield, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 7, 265–267 (1982).

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hemmati, H.

J. C. Bergquist, H. Hemmati, W. M. Itano, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Hildebrandt, G. F.

R. E. Stickel, S. Blit, G. F. Hildebrandt, E. D. Dahl, F. B. Dunning, F. K. Tittle, Appl. Opt, 17, 2270 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubby, L. M.

Itano, W. M.

J. C. Bergquist, H. Hemmati, W. M. Itano, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings of 35th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (Electronic Industries Associates, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. 602–611; F. G. Major, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1155–1158 (1973); M. D. McGuire, R. Petsch, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1999–2004 (1978); M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, R. Barillet, J. Viennet, P. Petit, C. Audoin, Appl. Phys. 24, 107–112 (1981); L. S. Cutler, R. F. Gifford, M. D. McGuire, in Proceedings of Thirteenth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Applications and Planning Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1981, NASA Conf Pub. 2220 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1982), pp. 563–578; P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, F. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Johannin-Gilles, A.

Y. Guern, A. Bideau-Méhu, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, Phys. Scr. 14, 273–276 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. A.

J. L. Hall, S. A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367–369 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

R. R. Freeman, G. C. Bjorklund, N. P. Economou, P. F. Liao, J. E. Bjorkholm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 739–742 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Spieweck, F.

F. Spieweck, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 361–363 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stickel, R. E.

R. E. Stickel, F. B. Dunning, Appl. Opt. 17, 981–982 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Stickel, S. Blit, G. F. Hildebrandt, E. D. Dahl, F. B. Dunning, F. K. Tittle, Appl. Opt, 17, 2270 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittle, F. K.

R. E. Stickel, S. Blit, G. F. Hildebrandt, E. D. Dahl, F. B. Dunning, F. K. Tittle, Appl. Opt, 17, 2270 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walls, F. L.

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639–1642 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings of 35th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (Electronic Industries Associates, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. 602–611; F. G. Major, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1155–1158 (1973); M. D. McGuire, R. Petsch, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1999–2004 (1978); M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, R. Barillet, J. Viennet, P. Petit, C. Audoin, Appl. Phys. 24, 107–112 (1981); L. S. Cutler, R. F. Gifford, M. D. McGuire, in Proceedings of Thirteenth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Applications and Planning Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1981, NASA Conf Pub. 2220 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1982), pp. 563–578; P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, F. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639–1642 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings of 35th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (Electronic Industries Associates, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. 602–611; F. G. Major, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1155–1158 (1973); M. D. McGuire, R. Petsch, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1999–2004 (1978); M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, R. Barillet, J. Viennet, P. Petit, C. Audoin, Appl. Phys. 24, 107–112 (1981); L. S. Cutler, R. F. Gifford, M. D. McGuire, in Proceedings of Thirteenth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Applications and Planning Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1981, NASA Conf Pub. 2220 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1982), pp. 563–578; P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, F. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt (1)

R. E. Stickel, S. Blit, G. F. Hildebrandt, E. D. Dahl, F. B. Dunning, F. K. Tittle, Appl. Opt, 17, 2270 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. R. Freeman, G. C. Bjorklund, N. P. Economou, P. F. Liao, J. E. Bjorkholm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 739–742 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, S. A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367–369 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. J. Dewey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 303–306 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

F. Spieweck, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 361–363 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Metrologia (1)

B. Edlén, Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. W. Hänsch, B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. Couillaud, Ph. Dabkiewicz, L. A. Bloomfield, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 7, 265–267 (1982).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639–1642 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

Y. Guern, A. Bideau-Méhu, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, Phys. Scr. 14, 273–276 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings of 35th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (Electronic Industries Associates, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. 602–611; F. G. Major, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1155–1158 (1973); M. D. McGuire, R. Petsch, G. Werth, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1999–2004 (1978); M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, R. Barillet, J. Viennet, P. Petit, C. Audoin, Appl. Phys. 24, 107–112 (1981); L. S. Cutler, R. F. Gifford, M. D. McGuire, in Proceedings of Thirteenth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Applications and Planning Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1981, NASA Conf Pub. 2220 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1982), pp. 563–578; P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, F. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bergquist, H. Hemmati, W. M. Itano, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for generation of 194-nm radiation in an external ring cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angle tuning in KB5 crystal. The crosses represent our data; the solid curve is from calculations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature tuning in KB5 crystal. The crosses represent our data; the line is a linear least-squares fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Isotope and hyperfine-structure components of the 194.2-nm resonance line in natural Hg ii.

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