Abstract

Low bending losses have been achieved in single-mode Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides by utilizing coherent coupling effects between closely spaced abrupt bends. A variety of multiple-bend structures has been evaluated. Losses as low as 0.08 dB per coupled 1° abrupt bend have been measured, as compared with 0.8 dB per isolated 1° abrupt bend.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric waveguides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).
  2. H. F. Taylor, “Power loss at directional change in dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 13, 642 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. F. Taylor, “Losses at corner bends in dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 16, 711 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Maruse, “Length optimization of an S-shaped transition between offset optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 17, 763(1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. J. Minford, R. C. Alferness, “Low-loss Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide bends at λ = 1.3 μm,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).
  6. V. Ramaswamy, “Low-loss bends for integrated optics,” in Digest of 1981 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981).
  7. L. D. Hutcheson, I. A. White, J. J. Burke, “Comparison of bending losses in integrated optical circuits,” Opt. Lett. 5, 276 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. G. Ramer, C. C. Nelson, C. M. Mohr, “Experimental integrated optic circuit losses and fiber pigtailing of chips,” in Digest of Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981).
  9. M. J. Taylor, E. R. Schumacher, “Measured losses in LiNbO3 waveguide bends,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3048 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. J. Taylor, H. F. Taylor, “Coherent mode coupling at waveguide bends,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977).
  11. L. M. Johnson, Ph.D. Thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1981) (unpublished).
  12. L. M. Johnson, F. J. Leonberger, G. W. Pratt, “Integrated optical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 134 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1982

L. M. Johnson, F. J. Leonberger, G. W. Pratt, “Integrated optical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 134 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

1978

1977

1974

1969

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric waveguides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).

Alferness, R. C.

W. J. Minford, R. C. Alferness, “Low-loss Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide bends at λ = 1.3 μm,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).

Burke, J. J.

Hutcheson, L. D.

Johnson, L. M.

L. M. Johnson, F. J. Leonberger, G. W. Pratt, “Integrated optical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 134 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Johnson, Ph.D. Thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1981) (unpublished).

Leonberger, F. J.

L. M. Johnson, F. J. Leonberger, G. W. Pratt, “Integrated optical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 134 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric waveguides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).

Maruse, D.

Minford, W. J.

W. J. Minford, R. C. Alferness, “Low-loss Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide bends at λ = 1.3 μm,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).

Mohr, C. M.

O. G. Ramer, C. C. Nelson, C. M. Mohr, “Experimental integrated optic circuit losses and fiber pigtailing of chips,” in Digest of Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981).

Nelson, C. C.

O. G. Ramer, C. C. Nelson, C. M. Mohr, “Experimental integrated optic circuit losses and fiber pigtailing of chips,” in Digest of Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981).

Pratt, G. W.

L. M. Johnson, F. J. Leonberger, G. W. Pratt, “Integrated optical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 134 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

V. Ramaswamy, “Low-loss bends for integrated optics,” in Digest of 1981 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981).

Ramer, O. G.

O. G. Ramer, C. C. Nelson, C. M. Mohr, “Experimental integrated optic circuit losses and fiber pigtailing of chips,” in Digest of Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981).

Schumacher, E. R.

Taylor, H. F.

H. F. Taylor, “Losses at corner bends in dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 16, 711 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Taylor, “Power loss at directional change in dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 13, 642 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Taylor, H. F. Taylor, “Coherent mode coupling at waveguide bends,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Taylor, M. J.

M. J. Taylor, E. R. Schumacher, “Measured losses in LiNbO3 waveguide bends,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3048 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Taylor, H. F. Taylor, “Coherent mode coupling at waveguide bends,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977).

White, I. A.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. M. Johnson, F. J. Leonberger, G. W. Pratt, “Integrated optical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 134 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric waveguides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).

Opt. Lett.

Other

W. J. Minford, R. C. Alferness, “Low-loss Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide bends at λ = 1.3 μm,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982).

V. Ramaswamy, “Low-loss bends for integrated optics,” in Digest of 1981 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981).

O. G. Ramer, C. C. Nelson, C. M. Mohr, “Experimental integrated optic circuit losses and fiber pigtailing of chips,” in Digest of Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981).

M. J. Taylor, H. F. Taylor, “Coherent mode coupling at waveguide bends,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977).

L. M. Johnson, Ph.D. Thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1981) (unpublished).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of coherently coupled multi-section-bend structure with interconnection length L.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveguide structure consisting of (a) two single-section coupled-bend devices and (b) the measured transmission of single devices relative to straight guides as a function of the interconnection length L.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical waveguide structure consisting of (a) two multisection coupled-bend devices and (b) measured transmission relative to straight guides of single devices with N = 1 to N = 5 sections with L = 180 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of structure consisting of 60 coupled 1° bends with an interconnection length of 180 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic illustration of waveguide structures consisting of two, three, and four curvature reversals with 32, 30, and 32 coupled 1° bends, respectively, with an interconnection length of 180 μm.

Equations (1)

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L = ( 2 m + 1 ) 2 Δ n λ             ( m = 0 , 1 , 2 ) ,

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