Abstract

We have used FM spectroscopy to detect the stimulated Raman gain effect in deuterium, demonstrating for the first reported time the quantum-noise-limited performance of this technique.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. L. Eesley, Coherent Raman Spectroscopy (Pergamon, Oxford, 1981), and references therein.
  2. M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1982).
  3. M. D. Levenson, J. J. Song, “Coherent Raman Spectroscopy,” in Coherent Nonlinear Optics, M. S. Feld, V. S. Letokhov, eds., Vol. 21 of Topics in Current Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 293–373.
    [Crossref]
  4. G. C. Bjorklund, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy: a new method for measuring weak absorptions and dispersions,” Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. G. C. Bjorklund, W. Lenth, M. D. Levenson, C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulated (FM) spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 286, 153 (1981).
  6. W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, G. C. Bjorklund, “Pulsed frequency-modulation spectroscopy as a means for fast absorption measurements,” Opt. Lett. 6, 351 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, “Ultrahigh sensitivity stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); “Frequency modulated shot noise limited stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980). These authors achieve superb sensitivity by using cw mode-locked lasers, which are in addition chopped or dithered in frequency at a 10-MHz rate to reduce power fluctuation noise. The parameters of their “frequency-modulation” technique and their detection scheme correspond to the “wavelength modulation spectroscopy” limit and not to the kind of “FM spectroscopy” introduced in Ref. 4 and are not suitable for high-resolution spectroscopy.
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Owyoung, “Cw stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” in Chemical Applications of Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy, A. B. Harvey, ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), pp. 281–320, and references therein.

1981 (2)

G. C. Bjorklund, W. Lenth, M. D. Levenson, C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulated (FM) spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 286, 153 (1981).

W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, G. C. Bjorklund, “Pulsed frequency-modulation spectroscopy as a means for fast absorption measurements,” Opt. Lett. 6, 351 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, “Ultrahigh sensitivity stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); “Frequency modulated shot noise limited stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980). These authors achieve superb sensitivity by using cw mode-locked lasers, which are in addition chopped or dithered in frequency at a 10-MHz rate to reduce power fluctuation noise. The parameters of their “frequency-modulation” technique and their detection scheme correspond to the “wavelength modulation spectroscopy” limit and not to the kind of “FM spectroscopy” introduced in Ref. 4 and are not suitable for high-resolution spectroscopy.
[Crossref]

G. C. Bjorklund, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy: a new method for measuring weak absorptions and dispersions,” Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, “Ultrahigh sensitivity stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); “Frequency modulated shot noise limited stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980). These authors achieve superb sensitivity by using cw mode-locked lasers, which are in addition chopped or dithered in frequency at a 10-MHz rate to reduce power fluctuation noise. The parameters of their “frequency-modulation” technique and their detection scheme correspond to the “wavelength modulation spectroscopy” limit and not to the kind of “FM spectroscopy” introduced in Ref. 4 and are not suitable for high-resolution spectroscopy.
[Crossref]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Eesley, G. L.

G. L. Eesley, Coherent Raman Spectroscopy (Pergamon, Oxford, 1981), and references therein.

Lenth, W.

G. C. Bjorklund, W. Lenth, M. D. Levenson, C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulated (FM) spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 286, 153 (1981).

W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, G. C. Bjorklund, “Pulsed frequency-modulation spectroscopy as a means for fast absorption measurements,” Opt. Lett. 6, 351 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, W. Lenth, M. D. Levenson, C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulated (FM) spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 286, 153 (1981).

M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1982).

M. D. Levenson, J. J. Song, “Coherent Raman Spectroscopy,” in Coherent Nonlinear Optics, M. S. Feld, V. S. Letokhov, eds., Vol. 21 of Topics in Current Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 293–373.
[Crossref]

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, “Ultrahigh sensitivity stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); “Frequency modulated shot noise limited stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980). These authors achieve superb sensitivity by using cw mode-locked lasers, which are in addition chopped or dithered in frequency at a 10-MHz rate to reduce power fluctuation noise. The parameters of their “frequency-modulation” technique and their detection scheme correspond to the “wavelength modulation spectroscopy” limit and not to the kind of “FM spectroscopy” introduced in Ref. 4 and are not suitable for high-resolution spectroscopy.
[Crossref]

Ortiz, C.

W. Lenth, C. Ortiz, G. C. Bjorklund, “Pulsed frequency-modulation spectroscopy as a means for fast absorption measurements,” Opt. Lett. 6, 351 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Bjorklund, W. Lenth, M. D. Levenson, C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulated (FM) spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 286, 153 (1981).

Owyoung, A.

A. Owyoung, “Cw stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” in Chemical Applications of Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy, A. B. Harvey, ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), pp. 281–320, and references therein.

Song, J. J.

M. D. Levenson, J. J. Song, “Coherent Raman Spectroscopy,” in Coherent Nonlinear Optics, M. S. Feld, V. S. Letokhov, eds., Vol. 21 of Topics in Current Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 293–373.
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, “Ultrahigh sensitivity stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); “Frequency modulated shot noise limited stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980). These authors achieve superb sensitivity by using cw mode-locked lasers, which are in addition chopped or dithered in frequency at a 10-MHz rate to reduce power fluctuation noise. The parameters of their “frequency-modulation” technique and their detection scheme correspond to the “wavelength modulation spectroscopy” limit and not to the kind of “FM spectroscopy” introduced in Ref. 4 and are not suitable for high-resolution spectroscopy.
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, W. Lenth, M. D. Levenson, C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulated (FM) spectroscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 286, 153 (1981).

Other (4)

A. Owyoung, “Cw stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” in Chemical Applications of Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy, A. B. Harvey, ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), pp. 281–320, and references therein.

G. L. Eesley, Coherent Raman Spectroscopy (Pergamon, Oxford, 1981), and references therein.

M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1982).

M. D. Levenson, J. J. Song, “Coherent Raman Spectroscopy,” in Coherent Nonlinear Optics, M. S. Feld, V. S. Letokhov, eds., Vol. 21 of Topics in Current Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 293–373.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FM-detected stimulated Raman gain apparatus. See text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical FM-detected stimulated Raman gain signal for the Q(2) mode in D2 at 2.7 atm.; time constant, 10 msec. The traces of system noise with the modulator off and with the probe blocked are offset for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of signal line shape with the double-balanced mixer phase rotated by 90°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stimulated Raman gain signal from 230 Torr D2; time constant, 30 msec.

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