Abstract

An experiment performed on barium atoms has permitted us to observe an infrared emission whose spectral and temporal analysis has led us to identify it with collision-induced superradiance. Tentative theoretical interpretation is given in the dressed-atom formalism using the monochromatic approximation.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Skribanowitz, S. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309 (1973); M. Gross, C. Fabre, P. Pillet, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1035 (1976); A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Lett. 58A, 373 (1976); H. M. Gibbs, Q. M. F. Vrehen, H. M. J. Hikspoors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 547 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Rousseau, G. D. Patterson, P. F. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1306 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, G. Pichler, J. Phys. B 12, L119 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Wynne, P. P. Sorokin, J. Phys. B 8, L37 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1326 (1977); see also J. L. Carlsten, A. Szöke, M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1029 (1977); J.Mostowski Mostowski, M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 36, 237 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Pinard, S. Liberman, Opt. Commun. 20, 344 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Reynaud, J. Phys. B 10, 345 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Cours du Collège de France, Paris, 1976–1977 (unpublished); F. Hoffbeck, Thèse de 3ème cycle, Université de Paris, 1978 (unpublished); S. Raynaud, Thèse d’Etat, Université de Paris, 1981 (unpublished); see also B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1023 (1977); B. S. Lisita, S. S. Yakovlenko, Sov. Phys. JETP 41, 233 (1975); E. Courtens, A. Szöke, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1588 (1977); S. Yeh, P. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 19, 1106 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. P. Penkin, L. N. Shabanova, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 191 (1969).
  8. The formulas are written for large positive δ. For large negative δ, levels |1n〉 and |2n〉 must be interchanged; Raman emission then occurs in the transition |2n〉 → |3n〉 and collision-induced emission occurs in the transition |1n〉 → |3n〉, and the final result is the same as for positive δ.
  9. A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. A 136, 376 (1964); L. O. Dickie, F. M. Kelly, Can. J. Phys. 48, 879 (1970); W. Rasmussen, R. Schieder, H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 12, 315 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. At resonance, these pumping effects give rise to relaxation oscillations [A. Crubellier, S. Liberman, D. Mayou, P. Pillet, M. G. Schweighofer, Opt. Lett. 7, 16 (1982)]. Here they are responsible for the broadening of those pulses whose delay times are of the same order as the laser-pulse duration (see Fig. 2).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. M. Miles, W. L. Wiese, At. Data 1, 1 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Crubellier, S. Liberman, P. Pillet, Opt. Commun. 33, 143 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, N. Skribanowitz, M. S. Feld in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974).
  14. N. E. Rehler, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. A 3, 1735 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. S. Pivtsov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, K. G. Folin, B. M. Chernobrod, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 250 (1981).

1982

1981

V. S. Pivtsov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, K. G. Folin, B. M. Chernobrod, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 250 (1981).

1980

A. Crubellier, S. Liberman, P. Pillet, Opt. Commun. 33, 143 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. Pinard, S. Liberman, Opt. Commun. 20, 344 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Reynaud, J. Phys. B 10, 345 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

D. L. Rousseau, G. D. Patterson, P. F. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1306 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, G. Pichler, J. Phys. B 12, L119 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wynne, P. P. Sorokin, J. Phys. B 8, L37 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1326 (1977); see also J. L. Carlsten, A. Szöke, M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1029 (1977); J.Mostowski Mostowski, M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 36, 237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973

N. Skribanowitz, S. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309 (1973); M. Gross, C. Fabre, P. Pillet, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1035 (1976); A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Lett. 58A, 373 (1976); H. M. Gibbs, Q. M. F. Vrehen, H. M. J. Hikspoors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 547 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1971

N. E. Rehler, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. A 3, 1735 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

B. M. Miles, W. L. Wiese, At. Data 1, 1 (1969).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Penkin, L. N. Shabanova, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 191 (1969).

1964

A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. A 136, 376 (1964); L. O. Dickie, F. M. Kelly, Can. J. Phys. 48, 879 (1970); W. Rasmussen, R. Schieder, H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 12, 315 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chernobrod, B. M.

V. S. Pivtsov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, K. G. Folin, B. M. Chernobrod, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 250 (1981).

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Reynaud, J. Phys. B 10, 345 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Cours du Collège de France, Paris, 1976–1977 (unpublished); F. Hoffbeck, Thèse de 3ème cycle, Université de Paris, 1978 (unpublished); S. Raynaud, Thèse d’Etat, Université de Paris, 1981 (unpublished); see also B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1023 (1977); B. S. Lisita, S. S. Yakovlenko, Sov. Phys. JETP 41, 233 (1975); E. Courtens, A. Szöke, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1588 (1977); S. Yeh, P. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 19, 1106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crubellier, A.

Eberly, J. H.

N. E. Rehler, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. A 3, 1735 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

N. Skribanowitz, S. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309 (1973); M. Gross, C. Fabre, P. Pillet, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1035 (1976); A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Lett. 58A, 373 (1976); H. M. Gibbs, Q. M. F. Vrehen, H. M. J. Hikspoors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 547 (1977).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, N. Skribanowitz, M. S. Feld in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974).

Folin, K. G.

V. S. Pivtsov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, K. G. Folin, B. M. Chernobrod, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 250 (1981).

Herman, I. P.

I. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, N. Skribanowitz, M. S. Feld in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974).

Herman, S. P.

N. Skribanowitz, S. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309 (1973); M. Gross, C. Fabre, P. Pillet, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1035 (1976); A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Lett. 58A, 373 (1976); H. M. Gibbs, Q. M. F. Vrehen, H. M. J. Hikspoors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 547 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, S.

Lurio, A.

A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. A 136, 376 (1964); L. O. Dickie, F. M. Kelly, Can. J. Phys. 48, 879 (1970); W. Rasmussen, R. Schieder, H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 12, 315 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mac Gillivray, J. C.

N. Skribanowitz, S. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309 (1973); M. Gross, C. Fabre, P. Pillet, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1035 (1976); A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Lett. 58A, 373 (1976); H. M. Gibbs, Q. M. F. Vrehen, H. M. J. Hikspoors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 547 (1977).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, N. Skribanowitz, M. S. Feld in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974).

Mayou, D.

Miles, B. M.

B. M. Miles, W. L. Wiese, At. Data 1, 1 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, G. D.

D. L. Rousseau, G. D. Patterson, P. F. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1306 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, G. Pichler, J. Phys. B 12, L119 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Penkin, N. P.

N. P. Penkin, L. N. Shabanova, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 191 (1969).

Pillet, P.

Pinard, J.

J. Pinard, S. Liberman, Opt. Commun. 20, 344 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pivtsov, V. S.

V. S. Pivtsov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, K. G. Folin, B. M. Chernobrod, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 250 (1981).

Rautian, S. G.

V. S. Pivtsov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, K. G. Folin, B. M. Chernobrod, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 250 (1981).

Rehler, N. E.

N. E. Rehler, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. A 3, 1735 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, S.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Reynaud, J. Phys. B 10, 345 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, D. L.

D. L. Rousseau, G. D. Patterson, P. F. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1306 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, G. Pichler, J. Phys. B 12, L119 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, V. P.

V. S. Pivtsov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, K. G. Folin, B. M. Chernobrod, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 250 (1981).

Schweighofer, M. G.

Shabanova, L. N.

N. P. Penkin, L. N. Shabanova, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 191 (1969).

Skribanowitz, N.

N. Skribanowitz, S. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309 (1973); M. Gross, C. Fabre, P. Pillet, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1035 (1976); A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Lett. 58A, 373 (1976); H. M. Gibbs, Q. M. F. Vrehen, H. M. J. Hikspoors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 547 (1977).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, N. Skribanowitz, M. S. Feld in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974).

Sorokin, P. P.

J. J. Wynne, P. P. Sorokin, J. Phys. B 8, L37 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1326 (1977); see also J. L. Carlsten, A. Szöke, M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1029 (1977); J.Mostowski Mostowski, M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 36, 237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, W. L.

B. M. Miles, W. L. Wiese, At. Data 1, 1 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Williams, P. F.

D. L. Rousseau, G. D. Patterson, P. F. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1306 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, G. Pichler, J. Phys. B 12, L119 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, J. J.

J. J. Wynne, P. P. Sorokin, J. Phys. B 8, L37 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1326 (1977); see also J. L. Carlsten, A. Szöke, M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1029 (1977); J.Mostowski Mostowski, M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 36, 237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

At. Data

B. M. Miles, W. L. Wiese, At. Data 1, 1 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

J. J. Wynne, P. P. Sorokin, J. Phys. B 8, L37 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1326 (1977); see also J. L. Carlsten, A. Szöke, M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1029 (1977); J.Mostowski Mostowski, M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 36, 237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Reynaud, J. Phys. B 10, 345 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. Pinard, S. Liberman, Opt. Commun. 20, 344 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Crubellier, S. Liberman, P. Pillet, Opt. Commun. 33, 143 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Spectrosc.

N. P. Penkin, L. N. Shabanova, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 191 (1969).

Phys. Rev. A

A. Lurio, Phys. Rev. A 136, 376 (1964); L. O. Dickie, F. M. Kelly, Can. J. Phys. 48, 879 (1970); W. Rasmussen, R. Schieder, H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 12, 315 (1974).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Rehler, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. A 3, 1735 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Skribanowitz, S. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309 (1973); M. Gross, C. Fabre, P. Pillet, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1035 (1976); A. Flusberg, T. Mossberg, S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Lett. 58A, 373 (1976); H. M. Gibbs, Q. M. F. Vrehen, H. M. J. Hikspoors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 547 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Rousseau, G. D. Patterson, P. F. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1306 (1975); M. G. Raymer, J. L. Carlsten, G. Pichler, J. Phys. B 12, L119 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

V. S. Pivtsov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, K. G. Folin, B. M. Chernobrod, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 250 (1981).

Other

I. P. Herman, J. C. Mac Gillivray, N. Skribanowitz, M. S. Feld in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974).

The formulas are written for large positive δ. For large negative δ, levels |1n〉 and |2n〉 must be interchanged; Raman emission then occurs in the transition |2n〉 → |3n〉 and collision-induced emission occurs in the transition |1n〉 → |3n〉, and the final result is the same as for positive δ.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Cours du Collège de France, Paris, 1976–1977 (unpublished); F. Hoffbeck, Thèse de 3ème cycle, Université de Paris, 1978 (unpublished); S. Raynaud, Thèse d’Etat, Université de Paris, 1981 (unpublished); see also B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1023 (1977); B. S. Lisita, S. S. Yakovlenko, Sov. Phys. JETP 41, 233 (1975); E. Courtens, A. Szöke, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1588 (1977); S. Yeh, P. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 19, 1106 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the relevant energy levels of Ba i with schematic representation of Raman and collision-induced processes. ωL corresponds to the laser frequency that is tuned near the resonance frequency ωab.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Trace (a) shows the laser pulse, whereas traces (b)–(d) show superradiant pulses. For trace (b), Ba pressure was 0.12 Torr, and the detuning, δ = ωabωL, was about −100 mK. For traces (c) and (d), Ba pressure was 0.65 Torr, and δ was about +100 mK; for trace (d), the laser beam was attenuated by a factor of 100.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detuning δ′ = ωωbc of the superradiant light versus detuning δ = ωLωab of the laser light.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 , n = cos φ a , n + 1 + sin ϕ b , n , 2 , n = - sin φ a , n + 1 + cos φ b , n , 3 , n = c , n ,
ω 1 , δ 1 / τ c .
χ = 2 γ c ( ω 1 2 δ ) 2 ,
N 2 N 1 = γ ( ω 1 / 2 δ ) 4 + 2 γ c ( ω 1 / 2 δ ) 2 γ + 2 γ c ( ω 1 / 2 δ ) 2 ,
τ = 1 γ [ 1 + ( ω 1 / 2 δ ) 4 ] + 4 γ c ( ω 1 / 2 δ ) 2 ,
N 2 / N 1 = 2 γ c ( ω 1 / 2 δ ) 2 / γ .
T R T C I = N 2 γ C I μ N 1 γ R μ = 2 γ c γ

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