Abstract

A fiber gyro with optical heterodyne detection is proposed. The experimental setup has been constructed and tested. Both the frequency difference in the fiber and the path-length difference between counterpropagating waves are eliminated to reduce output drift. An electronic circuit for phase-nulling detection has been constructed, which gives an electronic frequency output in proportion to the rotation rate. Direct frequency modulation of a single-mode laser diode has been adopted to reduce the noise that is due to the backward Rayleigh scattering. A short time resolution of the rotation rate of about 5 deg/h (0.0014 deg/sec) has been achieved with good linearity, for an integration time of 1 sec.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Börm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, “Fiber optic rotation sensor with low drift,” presented at the Gyro Symposium, Stuttgart, West Germany, September 23 and 24, 1981.
  2. J. L. Davis, S. Ezekiel, “Closed-loop, low-noise fiberoptic rotation sensor,” Opt. Lett. 6, 505–507 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “All-single-mode fiber-optic gyroscope with long-term stability,” Opt. Lett. 6, 502–504 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, S. K. Yao, B. R. Youmans, “Sagnac fiber-ring interferometer gyro with electronic phase sensing using a (GaAl)As laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 940–941 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Rotation detection by optical fibre laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Electron. Lett. 16, 941–942 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Hotate, N. Okuma, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Optical fiber laser gyro: Homodyne and heterodyne detections,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.
  7. K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Fiber-optic laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4313–4318 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, “Modulation frequency characteristics of directly optical frequency modulated AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” Electron Lett. 17, 350–351 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “On the optical system and scale factor of rate gyroscope using optical fiber,” in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1980), Sec. 4, p. 93.
  10. W. S. Brockett, J. M. Martin, J. M. Hoimes, T. L. Johnson, “Digital fiber optic rate sensor experimental model,” presented at International Conference on Lasers ’79.
  11. A similar optical system was proposed in Refs. 10 and 12, in which, however, the grating and the AOM are interchanged with respect to our system. Then there remains the frequency difference between the waves in the fiber.10 The fringe grating in front of the detector in Ref. 10 was used not as a directional coupler but as a spatial filter to select the same phase portions in the interfered fringe and to lead all of them to the detector. The AOM cannot perform the same role as the fringe grating in Ref. 10.
  12. J. M. Martin, W. S. Brockett, R. R. Selleck, T. L. Johnson, M. G. Croteau, “Digital fiber-optic rate sensor development,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.
  13. C. C. Cutler, S. A. Newton, H. J. Shaw, “Limitation of rotation sensing by scattering,” Opt. Lett. 5, 488–490 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (4)

1980 (2)

C. C. Cutler, S. A. Newton, H. J. Shaw, “Limitation of rotation sensing by scattering,” Opt. Lett. 5, 488–490 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Rotation detection by optical fibre laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Electron. Lett. 16, 941–942 (1980).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, S. K. Yao, B. R. Youmans, “Sagnac fiber-ring interferometer gyro with electronic phase sensing using a (GaAl)As laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 940–941 (1978).
[Crossref]

Anderson, D. B.

D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, S. K. Yao, B. R. Youmans, “Sagnac fiber-ring interferometer gyro with electronic phase sensing using a (GaAl)As laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 940–941 (1978).
[Crossref]

Bergh, R. A.

Börm, K.

K. Börm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, “Fiber optic rotation sensor with low drift,” presented at the Gyro Symposium, Stuttgart, West Germany, September 23 and 24, 1981.

Brockett, W. S.

W. S. Brockett, J. M. Martin, J. M. Hoimes, T. L. Johnson, “Digital fiber optic rate sensor experimental model,” presented at International Conference on Lasers ’79.

J. M. Martin, W. S. Brockett, R. R. Selleck, T. L. Johnson, M. G. Croteau, “Digital fiber-optic rate sensor development,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

Croteau, M. G.

J. M. Martin, W. S. Brockett, R. R. Selleck, T. L. Johnson, M. G. Croteau, “Digital fiber-optic rate sensor development,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

Cutler, C. C.

Davis, J. L.

Ezekiel, S.

Higashiguchi, M.

K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Fiber-optic laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4313–4318 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Rotation detection by optical fibre laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Electron. Lett. 16, 941–942 (1980).
[Crossref]

K. Hotate, N. Okuma, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Optical fiber laser gyro: Homodyne and heterodyne detections,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “On the optical system and scale factor of rate gyroscope using optical fiber,” in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1980), Sec. 4, p. 93.

Hoimes, J. M.

W. S. Brockett, J. M. Martin, J. M. Hoimes, T. L. Johnson, “Digital fiber optic rate sensor experimental model,” presented at International Conference on Lasers ’79.

Hotate, K.

K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Fiber-optic laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4313–4318 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Rotation detection by optical fibre laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Electron. Lett. 16, 941–942 (1980).
[Crossref]

K. Hotate, N. Okuma, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Optical fiber laser gyro: Homodyne and heterodyne detections,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “On the optical system and scale factor of rate gyroscope using optical fiber,” in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1980), Sec. 4, p. 93.

Johnson, T. L.

J. M. Martin, W. S. Brockett, R. R. Selleck, T. L. Johnson, M. G. Croteau, “Digital fiber-optic rate sensor development,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

W. S. Brockett, J. M. Martin, J. M. Hoimes, T. L. Johnson, “Digital fiber optic rate sensor experimental model,” presented at International Conference on Lasers ’79.

Kimura, T.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, “Modulation frequency characteristics of directly optical frequency modulated AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” Electron Lett. 17, 350–351 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, “Modulation frequency characteristics of directly optical frequency modulated AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” Electron Lett. 17, 350–351 (1981).
[Crossref]

Lefevre, H. C.

Marten, P.

K. Börm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, “Fiber optic rotation sensor with low drift,” presented at the Gyro Symposium, Stuttgart, West Germany, September 23 and 24, 1981.

Martin, J. M.

J. M. Martin, W. S. Brockett, R. R. Selleck, T. L. Johnson, M. G. Croteau, “Digital fiber-optic rate sensor development,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

W. S. Brockett, J. M. Martin, J. M. Hoimes, T. L. Johnson, “Digital fiber optic rate sensor experimental model,” presented at International Conference on Lasers ’79.

Newton, S. A.

Niwa, N.

K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Fiber-optic laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4313–4318 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Rotation detection by optical fibre laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Electron. Lett. 16, 941–942 (1980).
[Crossref]

K. Hotate, N. Okuma, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Optical fiber laser gyro: Homodyne and heterodyne detections,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “On the optical system and scale factor of rate gyroscope using optical fiber,” in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1980), Sec. 4, p. 93.

Okuma, N.

K. Hotate, N. Okuma, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Optical fiber laser gyro: Homodyne and heterodyne detections,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

Petermann, K.

K. Börm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, “Fiber optic rotation sensor with low drift,” presented at the Gyro Symposium, Stuttgart, West Germany, September 23 and 24, 1981.

Selleck, R. R.

J. M. Martin, W. S. Brockett, R. R. Selleck, T. L. Johnson, M. G. Croteau, “Digital fiber-optic rate sensor development,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

Shaw, H. J.

Thompson, D. E.

D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, S. K. Yao, B. R. Youmans, “Sagnac fiber-ring interferometer gyro with electronic phase sensing using a (GaAl)As laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 940–941 (1978).
[Crossref]

Weidel, E.

K. Börm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, “Fiber optic rotation sensor with low drift,” presented at the Gyro Symposium, Stuttgart, West Germany, September 23 and 24, 1981.

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, “Modulation frequency characteristics of directly optical frequency modulated AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” Electron Lett. 17, 350–351 (1981).
[Crossref]

Yao, S. K.

D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, S. K. Yao, B. R. Youmans, “Sagnac fiber-ring interferometer gyro with electronic phase sensing using a (GaAl)As laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 940–941 (1978).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, Y.

K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Fiber-optic laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4313–4318 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Rotation detection by optical fibre laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Electron. Lett. 16, 941–942 (1980).
[Crossref]

Youmans, B. R.

D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, S. K. Yao, B. R. Youmans, “Sagnac fiber-ring interferometer gyro with electronic phase sensing using a (GaAl)As laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 940–941 (1978).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, S. K. Yao, B. R. Youmans, “Sagnac fiber-ring interferometer gyro with electronic phase sensing using a (GaAl)As laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 940–941 (1978).
[Crossref]

Electron Lett. (1)

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, “Modulation frequency characteristics of directly optical frequency modulated AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” Electron Lett. 17, 350–351 (1981).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Hotate, Y. Yoshida, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Rotation detection by optical fibre laser gyro with easily introduced phase-difference bias,” Electron. Lett. 16, 941–942 (1980).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (6)

K. Börm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, “Fiber optic rotation sensor with low drift,” presented at the Gyro Symposium, Stuttgart, West Germany, September 23 and 24, 1981.

K. Hotate, N. Okuma, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “Optical fiber laser gyro: Homodyne and heterodyne detections,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

K. Hotate, M. Higashiguchi, N. Niwa, “On the optical system and scale factor of rate gyroscope using optical fiber,” in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1980), Sec. 4, p. 93.

W. S. Brockett, J. M. Martin, J. M. Hoimes, T. L. Johnson, “Digital fiber optic rate sensor experimental model,” presented at International Conference on Lasers ’79.

A similar optical system was proposed in Refs. 10 and 12, in which, however, the grating and the AOM are interchanged with respect to our system. Then there remains the frequency difference between the waves in the fiber.10 The fringe grating in front of the detector in Ref. 10 was used not as a directional coupler but as a spatial filter to select the same phase portions in the interfered fringe and to lead all of them to the detector. The AOM cannot perform the same role as the fringe grating in Ref. 10.

J. M. Martin, W. S. Brockett, R. R. Selleck, T. L. Johnson, M. G. Croteau, “Digital fiber-optic rate sensor development,” presented at the International Conference on Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., November 9–11, 1981.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual diagram of the optical system of the proposed optical heterodyne fiber gyro.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the electronic circuit for phase-nulling detection with frequency output.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One result of rotation-detection experiments by the optical heterodyne fiber gyro. The upper portion demonstrates the detection of the Earth’s rotation rate (±0.0042 deg/sec). Integration time is 1 sec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output drift of the optical heterodyne fiber gyro. The output change for the Earth’s rotation rate (±ΩE) is demonstrated. Integration time is 1 sec.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linearity between given and measured rotation rates.

Equations (2)

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Δ l = d ( 1 cos ϕ ) ϕ 2 2 d ,
f 2 = Δ θ + 2 n π π 2 2 π T d ,

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