Abstract

Atomic mercury in the atmosphere was detected by the differential-absorption lidar technique. Laser light at the mercury resonance wavelength of 253.65 nm was generated by anti-Stokes shifting in H2 of the frequency-doubled output from a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. The measurements demonstrate that a concentration of 4 ng/m3, corresponding to a typical background value, can be detected if a path length of 2 × 1 km is used.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. O. Nriagu, ed., The Biogeochemistry of Mercury in the Environment (Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979).
  2. C. Brosset, “Investigation of mercury in air and natural waters,” Tech. Rep. KHM 05 (Swedish State Power Board, Vällingby, Sweden, 1981) (in Swedish).
  3. R. M. Measures, “Analytical use of lasers in remote sensing,” in Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, N. Omenetto, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979).
  4. S. Svanberg, “Lasers as probes for air and sea,” Contemp. Phys. 21, 541 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, K. Nyström, S. Svanberg, “Mobile lidar system for environmental probing,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4181 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. G. Hawley, G. F. Wallace, L. D. Fletcher, “A mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for range resolved measurements of SO2, O3, and NO2,” presented at the Nineteenth Meeting of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Aerospace Sciences on Measurement and Modeling of Atmospheric Trace Species in the Troposphere, in St. Louis, Mo., 1981.
  7. M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221, 456 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Jegou, P. Juramy, G. Megie, M. L. Chanin, “Dynamics and photochemistry at the mesopause level from lidar sounding of alkali atoms,” presented at International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md., 1980.
  9. G. C. Bjorklund, R. H. Storz, “Servo tuning and stabilization of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 228 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Nilsson, P. Norrman, “Construction and testing of an automatic frequency-doubling system,” Lund Reps. on Atomic Physics LRAP-10 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1981) (in Swedish).
  11. K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, K. Nyström, S. Svanberg, “Lidar system applied in atmospheric pollution monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2998 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 54th ed. (CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1973).
  13. C. Brosset, Swedish Water and Air Pollution Research Institute, Göteborg, Sweden (personal communication).

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

S. Svanberg, “Lasers as probes for air and sea,” Contemp. Phys. 21, 541 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

G. C. Bjorklund, R. H. Storz, “Servo tuning and stabilization of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 228 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, K. Nyström, S. Svanberg, “Lidar system applied in atmospheric pollution monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2998 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221, 456 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, R. H. Storz, “Servo tuning and stabilization of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 228 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, M. R.

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221, 456 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Brosset, C.

C. Brosset, Swedish Water and Air Pollution Research Institute, Göteborg, Sweden (personal communication).

C. Brosset, “Investigation of mercury in air and natural waters,” Tech. Rep. KHM 05 (Swedish State Power Board, Vällingby, Sweden, 1981) (in Swedish).

Chanin, M. L.

J. P. Jegou, P. Juramy, G. Megie, M. L. Chanin, “Dynamics and photochemistry at the mesopause level from lidar sounding of alkali atoms,” presented at International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md., 1980.

Fletcher, L. D.

J. G. Hawley, G. F. Wallace, L. D. Fletcher, “A mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for range resolved measurements of SO2, O3, and NO2,” presented at the Nineteenth Meeting of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Aerospace Sciences on Measurement and Modeling of Atmospheric Trace Species in the Troposphere, in St. Louis, Mo., 1981.

Fredriksson, K.

Galle, B.

Gibson, A. J.

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221, 456 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hawley, J. G.

J. G. Hawley, G. F. Wallace, L. D. Fletcher, “A mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for range resolved measurements of SO2, O3, and NO2,” presented at the Nineteenth Meeting of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Aerospace Sciences on Measurement and Modeling of Atmospheric Trace Species in the Troposphere, in St. Louis, Mo., 1981.

Jegou, J. P.

J. P. Jegou, P. Juramy, G. Megie, M. L. Chanin, “Dynamics and photochemistry at the mesopause level from lidar sounding of alkali atoms,” presented at International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md., 1980.

Juramy, P.

J. P. Jegou, P. Juramy, G. Megie, M. L. Chanin, “Dynamics and photochemistry at the mesopause level from lidar sounding of alkali atoms,” presented at International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md., 1980.

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, “Analytical use of lasers in remote sensing,” in Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, N. Omenetto, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Megie, G.

J. P. Jegou, P. Juramy, G. Megie, M. L. Chanin, “Dynamics and photochemistry at the mesopause level from lidar sounding of alkali atoms,” presented at International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md., 1980.

Nilsson, B.

B. Nilsson, P. Norrman, “Construction and testing of an automatic frequency-doubling system,” Lund Reps. on Atomic Physics LRAP-10 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1981) (in Swedish).

Norrman, P.

B. Nilsson, P. Norrman, “Construction and testing of an automatic frequency-doubling system,” Lund Reps. on Atomic Physics LRAP-10 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1981) (in Swedish).

Nyström, K.

Sandford, M. C.

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221, 456 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Storz, R. H.

G. C. Bjorklund, R. H. Storz, “Servo tuning and stabilization of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 228 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

Wallace, G. F.

J. G. Hawley, G. F. Wallace, L. D. Fletcher, “A mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for range resolved measurements of SO2, O3, and NO2,” presented at the Nineteenth Meeting of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Aerospace Sciences on Measurement and Modeling of Atmospheric Trace Species in the Troposphere, in St. Louis, Mo., 1981.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Contemp. Phys. (1)

S. Svanberg, “Lasers as probes for air and sea,” Contemp. Phys. 21, 541 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, R. H. Storz, “Servo tuning and stabilization of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 228 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221, 456 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. P. Jegou, P. Juramy, G. Megie, M. L. Chanin, “Dynamics and photochemistry at the mesopause level from lidar sounding of alkali atoms,” presented at International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md., 1980.

B. Nilsson, P. Norrman, “Construction and testing of an automatic frequency-doubling system,” Lund Reps. on Atomic Physics LRAP-10 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1981) (in Swedish).

J. G. Hawley, G. F. Wallace, L. D. Fletcher, “A mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for range resolved measurements of SO2, O3, and NO2,” presented at the Nineteenth Meeting of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Aerospace Sciences on Measurement and Modeling of Atmospheric Trace Species in the Troposphere, in St. Louis, Mo., 1981.

J. O. Nriagu, ed., The Biogeochemistry of Mercury in the Environment (Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979).

C. Brosset, “Investigation of mercury in air and natural waters,” Tech. Rep. KHM 05 (Swedish State Power Board, Vällingby, Sweden, 1981) (in Swedish).

R. M. Measures, “Analytical use of lasers in remote sensing,” in Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, N. Omenetto, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 54th ed. (CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1973).

C. Brosset, Swedish Water and Air Pollution Research Institute, Göteborg, Sweden (personal communication).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the measurement system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity of backscattered light versus wavelength from a fixed target behind a remotely positioned sample chamber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A DIAL measurement of the mercury-vapor content in the distant chamber. The two upper curves show the intensity of atmospheric backscattering on and off mercury resonance, respectively; the lower curve displays the divided DIAL signal.

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