A blazing technique using electron-beam lithography to achieve higher efficiency of gratings and Fresnel lenses is described. Transmission-type blazed gratings have been formed in polymethyl methacrylate films. As a result of measurement, we found that their diffraction efficiency of the first order in these gratings amounts to as much as 60 to 70% at 0.633 μm. Fresnel lenses of 1-mm diameter and 5-mm focal length, which have a sawtooth relief profile, have been also fabricated, and the experimental results showed high-efficiency performance (about 50%) and nearly diffraction-limited focusing.
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