Abstract

An ultrahigh-Q, tunable optical filter with a FWHM bandwidth of 41 MHz is demonstrated. The filtering is produced by nondegenerate phase conjugation through four-wave mixing in atomic-sodium vapor. The filter is observed to have a maximum quantum efficiency of 4 × 10−3. However, degenerate phase-conjugation experiments in sodium suggest that a quantum efficiency of greater than unity can be attained on a cw basis.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Nilsen, A. Yariv, “Nearly degenerate four-wave mixing applied to optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 18, 143 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Nilsen, A. Yariv, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a Doppler-broadened resonant medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 180(1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. M. Pepper, R. L. Abrams, “Narrow optical bandpass filter via nearly degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 3, 212 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Fu, M. Sargent, “Effects of signal detuning on phase conjugation,” Opt. Lett. 4, 366 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. J. Harter, R. W. Boyd, “Nearly degenerate four-wave mixing enhanced by the ac Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1126 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. K. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, “A wide-angle narrowband optical filter using phase-conjugation by four-wave mixing in a waveguide,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; R. W. Hellwarth, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 90007, personal communication.
  7. L. M. Humphrey, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, “Angular dependence of line shape and strength of degenerate four-wave mixing in a Doppler-broadened system with optical pumping,” Opt. Lett. 5, 56 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, “Cw optical wave-front conjugation by saturated absorption in atomic sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, J. F. Lam, R. K. Jain, R. A. McFarlane, “Studies of degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic and molecular systems,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; Duncan G. Steel, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265, personal communication.
  10. F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198(1974).
    [CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (2)

1979 (2)

1978 (2)

D. M. Pepper, R. L. Abrams, “Narrow optical bandpass filter via nearly degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 3, 212 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, “Cw optical wave-front conjugation by saturated absorption in atomic sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198(1974).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, R. L.

Bloom, D. M.

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, “Cw optical wave-front conjugation by saturated absorption in atomic sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

D. J. Harter, R. W. Boyd, “Nearly degenerate four-wave mixing enhanced by the ac Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Economou, N. P.

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, “Cw optical wave-front conjugation by saturated absorption in atomic sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fu, T.

Gordon, J. P.

Harter, D. J.

D. J. Harter, R. W. Boyd, “Nearly degenerate four-wave mixing enhanced by the ac Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

L. K. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, “A wide-angle narrowband optical filter using phase-conjugation by four-wave mixing in a waveguide,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; R. W. Hellwarth, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 90007, personal communication.

Hercher, M.

F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198(1974).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, L. M.

Jain, R. K.

R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, J. F. Lam, R. K. Jain, R. A. McFarlane, “Studies of degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic and molecular systems,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; Duncan G. Steel, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265, personal communication.

Lam, J. F.

R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, J. F. Lam, R. K. Jain, R. A. McFarlane, “Studies of degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic and molecular systems,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; Duncan G. Steel, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265, personal communication.

Lam, L. K.

L. K. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, “A wide-angle narrowband optical filter using phase-conjugation by four-wave mixing in a waveguide,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; R. W. Hellwarth, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 90007, personal communication.

Liao, P. F.

L. M. Humphrey, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, “Angular dependence of line shape and strength of degenerate four-wave mixing in a Doppler-broadened system with optical pumping,” Opt. Lett. 5, 56 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, “Cw optical wave-front conjugation by saturated absorption in atomic sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lind, R. C.

R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, J. F. Lam, R. K. Jain, R. A. McFarlane, “Studies of degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic and molecular systems,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; Duncan G. Steel, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265, personal communication.

McFarlane, R. A.

R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, J. F. Lam, R. K. Jain, R. A. McFarlane, “Studies of degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic and molecular systems,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; Duncan G. Steel, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265, personal communication.

Nilsen, J.

Pepper, D. M.

Sargent, M.

Schuda, F.

F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198(1974).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, J. F. Lam, R. K. Jain, R. A. McFarlane, “Studies of degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic and molecular systems,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; Duncan G. Steel, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265, personal communication.

Stroud, C. R.

F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198(1974).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, “Cw optical wave-front conjugation by saturated absorption in atomic sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. J. Harter, R. W. Boyd, “Nearly degenerate four-wave mixing enhanced by the ac Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198(1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

L. K. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, “A wide-angle narrowband optical filter using phase-conjugation by four-wave mixing in a waveguide,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; R. W. Hellwarth, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 90007, personal communication.

R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, J. F. Lam, R. K. Jain, R. A. McFarlane, “Studies of degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic and molecular systems,” presented at the Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference, Boston, Mass., June 23–26, 1980; Duncan G. Steel, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, Calif. 90265, personal communication.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for cw nondegenerate phase conjugation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectivity for degenerate phase conjugation versus laser tuning for the 3S1/2–3P3/2 transition. The laser intensity for the pump wave is 2800 mW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectivity for nondegenerate phase conjugation versus signal laser tuning with the pump laser fixed on the stronger peak of the 3S1/2 (F = 2) to 3P3/2 (F = 3) transition. The laser intensity for the pump wave is 2500 mW/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectivity for degenerate phase conjugation versus laser tuning for the 3S1/2–3P3/2 transition. The laser intensity for the pump wave is 190 mW/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectivity for nondegenerate phase conjugation versus signal laser tuning with the pump laser fixed on the 3S1/2 (F = 2) to 3P3/2 (F = 3) transition. The laser intensity for the pump wave is 200 mW/cm2.

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