Abstract

Micro lenses are basic components of micro optics. We have proposed a new fabrication technique for micro lenses that uses electron-beam lithography and have developed an electron-beam lithography system that is specially designed for this purpose. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, ordinary-type Fresnel (zone-plate) lenses and a special-type lens for converting an incident Gaussian intensity distribution into a uniform one were designed and fabricated. It was found that these Fresnel (zone-plate) lenses have near-diffraction-limited performance. The fabrication technique and experimental results are discussed.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Nishihara, S. Inohara, T. Suhara, J. Koyama, “Holocoupler; a novel coupler for optical circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 794–796 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Trans. Inst. Elect. Commun. Eng. Jpn. C (to be published, 1981).
  3. Y. Handa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Microgratings for high-efficiency guided-beam deflection fabricated by electron-beam direct-writing techniques,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2842–2947 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction efficiency of thin phase gratings with arbitary grating shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 806–809 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1980

1978

1975

H. Nishihara, S. Inohara, T. Suhara, J. Koyama, “Holocoupler; a novel coupler for optical circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 794–796 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, T.

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Trans. Inst. Elect. Commun. Eng. Jpn. C (to be published, 1981).

Gaylord, T. K.

Handa, Y.

Inohara, S.

H. Nishihara, S. Inohara, T. Suhara, J. Koyama, “Holocoupler; a novel coupler for optical circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 794–796 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

Y. Handa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Microgratings for high-efficiency guided-beam deflection fabricated by electron-beam direct-writing techniques,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2842–2947 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara, S. Inohara, T. Suhara, J. Koyama, “Holocoupler; a novel coupler for optical circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 794–796 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Trans. Inst. Elect. Commun. Eng. Jpn. C (to be published, 1981).

Magnusson, R.

Nishihara, H.

Y. Handa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Microgratings for high-efficiency guided-beam deflection fabricated by electron-beam direct-writing techniques,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2842–2947 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara, S. Inohara, T. Suhara, J. Koyama, “Holocoupler; a novel coupler for optical circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 794–796 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Trans. Inst. Elect. Commun. Eng. Jpn. C (to be published, 1981).

Suhara, T.

Y. Handa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Microgratings for high-efficiency guided-beam deflection fabricated by electron-beam direct-writing techniques,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2842–2947 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara, S. Inohara, T. Suhara, J. Koyama, “Holocoupler; a novel coupler for optical circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 794–796 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. Nishihara, S. Inohara, T. Suhara, J. Koyama, “Holocoupler; a novel coupler for optical circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 794–796 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Other

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Trans. Inst. Elect. Commun. Eng. Jpn. C (to be published, 1981).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of an electron beam scanning to fabricate a micro Fresnel (zone-plate) lens. The portions of a PMMA film that have been scanned by an electron beam dissolve in a developer; then circular corrugations are formed on the glass substrate, resulting in a Fresnel lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the developed electron-beam lithography system. The system consists of a scanning electron microscope, a minicomputer, and some external control units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micrograph of a micro Fresnel (zone-plate) lens. Diameter 2d = 1 mm; focal length f = 5 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Micrograph of a special-type Fresnel (zone-plate) lens. It converts the intensity distribution of a incident Gaussian beam into a uniform intensity distribution on its focal plane. The period and the duty ratio of the circular grating vary radially. Diameter 2d = 2.07 mm; focal length f = 11.2 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output intensity distribution on the focal plane of the lens in Fig. 4. The diameter of the beam on the focal plane is 36 μm, which is in good agreement with the designed value. The ripple rate to the maximum intensity is about 0.33. The sharpness at the beam edge is 0.2–0.25, defined as the ratio of the radius increment, which is required for the intensity to decrease from 90 to 10%, to the beam radius.

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