Abstract

We describe a fiber gyroscope operating at maximum sensitivity that is due to a nonreciprocal π/2 phase bias effected with a pulsed voltage applied to an electro-optic LiNbO3 channel waveguide phase shifter. With a He–Ne laser source, the noise was equivalent to a 0.1°/sec rotation, for a 10-Hz bandwidth and 2% reflectivity at each fiber–LiNbO3 interface. The phase shifters showed polarization-independent behavior that was characterized by measurements in a fiber interferometer. They were flip-chip coupled with single-mode fibers that were cemented to the channel ends to give a stable module.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Arditty, M. Papuchon, C. Puech, K. Thyagarajan, “Recent developments in guided wave optical rotation sensors,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).
  2. R. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic rotation sensing with low drift,” Opt. Lett. 5, 173–175 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “All-single-mode fiber-optic gyroscope,” Opt. Lett. 6, 198–200 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. H. Bulmer, S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, W. K. Burns, “High-efficiency flip-chip coupling between single-mode fibers and LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 351–353 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. K. Burns, T. G. Giallorenzi, R. P. Moeller, E. J. West, “Interferometric waveguide modulator with polarization-independent operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 944–947 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. K. Burns, C. H. Bulmer, E. J. West, “Application of Li2O compensation techniques to Ti-diffused LiNbO3 planar and channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 70–72 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Single-mode fiber-optical power divider: encapsulated etching technique,” Opt. Lett. 4, 29–31 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. A. Jackson, R. Priest, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, “Elimination of drift in a single-mode optical fiber interferometer using a piezoelectrically stretched coiled fiber,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2926–2929 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. A. Villarruel, R. P. Moeller, “Fused single mode fibre access couplers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 243–244 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Polarization effects on single-mode optical fiber sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 914–917 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. T. Milek, M. Neuberger, in Handbook of Electronic Materials (Plenum, New York, 1972), Vol. 8, p. 97.
  12. K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, R. Ulrich, “Low drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17, 352–353 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1981 (3)

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “All-single-mode fiber-optic gyroscope,” Opt. Lett. 6, 198–200 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Villarruel, R. P. Moeller, “Fused single mode fibre access couplers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 243–244 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, R. Ulrich, “Low drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17, 352–353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

1979 (2)

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Single-mode fiber-optical power divider: encapsulated etching technique,” Opt. Lett. 4, 29–31 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Polarization effects on single-mode optical fiber sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 914–917 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

W. K. Burns, T. G. Giallorenzi, R. P. Moeller, E. J. West, “Interferometric waveguide modulator with polarization-independent operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 944–947 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, C. H. Bulmer, E. J. West, “Application of Li2O compensation techniques to Ti-diffused LiNbO3 planar and channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 70–72 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Arditty, H.

H. Arditty, M. Papuchon, C. Puech, K. Thyagarajan, “Recent developments in guided wave optical rotation sensors,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).

Bergh, R. A.

Böhm, K.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, R. Ulrich, “Low drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17, 352–353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bulmer, C. H.

C. H. Bulmer, S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, W. K. Burns, “High-efficiency flip-chip coupling between single-mode fibers and LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 351–353 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, C. H. Bulmer, E. J. West, “Application of Li2O compensation techniques to Ti-diffused LiNbO3 planar and channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 70–72 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

C. H. Bulmer, S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, W. K. Burns, “High-efficiency flip-chip coupling between single-mode fibers and LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 351–353 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, T. G. Giallorenzi, R. P. Moeller, E. J. West, “Interferometric waveguide modulator with polarization-independent operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 944–947 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, C. H. Bulmer, E. J. West, “Application of Li2O compensation techniques to Ti-diffused LiNbO3 planar and channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 70–72 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

Giallorenzi, T. G.

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Single-mode fiber-optical power divider: encapsulated etching technique,” Opt. Lett. 4, 29–31 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Polarization effects on single-mode optical fiber sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 914–917 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, T. G. Giallorenzi, R. P. Moeller, E. J. West, “Interferometric waveguide modulator with polarization-independent operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 944–947 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

Lefevre, H. C.

Marten, P.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, R. Ulrich, “Low drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17, 352–353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Milek, J. T.

J. T. Milek, M. Neuberger, in Handbook of Electronic Materials (Plenum, New York, 1972), Vol. 8, p. 97.

Moeller, R. P.

C. A. Villarruel, R. P. Moeller, “Fused single mode fibre access couplers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 243–244 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bulmer, S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, W. K. Burns, “High-efficiency flip-chip coupling between single-mode fibers and LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 351–353 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, T. G. Giallorenzi, R. P. Moeller, E. J. West, “Interferometric waveguide modulator with polarization-independent operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 944–947 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Neuberger, M.

J. T. Milek, M. Neuberger, in Handbook of Electronic Materials (Plenum, New York, 1972), Vol. 8, p. 97.

Papuchon, M.

H. Arditty, M. Papuchon, C. Puech, K. Thyagarajan, “Recent developments in guided wave optical rotation sensors,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).

Petermann, K.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, R. Ulrich, “Low drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17, 352–353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Priest, R.

Puech, C.

H. Arditty, M. Papuchon, C. Puech, K. Thyagarajan, “Recent developments in guided wave optical rotation sensors,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).

Shaw, H. J.

Sheem, S. K.

C. H. Bulmer, S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, W. K. Burns, “High-efficiency flip-chip coupling between single-mode fibers and LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 351–353 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Polarization effects on single-mode optical fiber sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 914–917 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Single-mode fiber-optical power divider: encapsulated etching technique,” Opt. Lett. 4, 29–31 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thyagarajan, K.

H. Arditty, M. Papuchon, C. Puech, K. Thyagarajan, “Recent developments in guided wave optical rotation sensors,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).

Tveten, A. B.

Ulrich, R.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, R. Ulrich, “Low drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17, 352–353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic rotation sensing with low drift,” Opt. Lett. 5, 173–175 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villarruel, C. A.

C. A. Villarruel, R. P. Moeller, “Fused single mode fibre access couplers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 243–244 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weidel, E.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, R. Ulrich, “Low drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17, 352–353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

West, E. J.

W. K. Burns, T. G. Giallorenzi, R. P. Moeller, E. J. West, “Interferometric waveguide modulator with polarization-independent operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 944–947 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, C. H. Bulmer, E. J. West, “Application of Li2O compensation techniques to Ti-diffused LiNbO3 planar and channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 70–72 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. H. Bulmer, S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, W. K. Burns, “High-efficiency flip-chip coupling between single-mode fibers and LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 351–353 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, T. G. Giallorenzi, R. P. Moeller, E. J. West, “Interferometric waveguide modulator with polarization-independent operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 944–947 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, C. H. Bulmer, E. J. West, “Application of Li2O compensation techniques to Ti-diffused LiNbO3 planar and channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 70–72 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, “Polarization effects on single-mode optical fiber sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 914–917 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, R. Ulrich, “Low drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17, 352–353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Villarruel, R. P. Moeller, “Fused single mode fibre access couplers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 243–244 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

H. Arditty, M. Papuchon, C. Puech, K. Thyagarajan, “Recent developments in guided wave optical rotation sensors,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).

J. T. Milek, M. Neuberger, in Handbook of Electronic Materials (Plenum, New York, 1972), Vol. 8, p. 97.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Channel waveguide phase-shifter electrode configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of fiber gyroscope experimental arrangement with LiNbO3 phase shifter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Boxcar averager output signal (P1aP1b ) for Ω = 0 and Ω = ±2°/sec with (a) 1-sec and (b) 10-msec time constant.

Equations (2)

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( P 1 P 2 ) = [ 1 / 2 ( sin 2 2 κ l ) ( 1 + cos θ ) 1 P 1 ]
( P 1 P 2 ) = 1 9 ( 4 4 sin ξ 5 ± 4 sin ξ ) ,

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