Abstract

As part of a program to develop sensitive laser inertial rotation sensors, we have studied the performance of a passive-resonator technique using a 0.7-m × 0.7-m optical cavity. For an averaging time τ of 10 sec, the random drift was 1.1 × 10−2 deg/h, which was consistent with the shot-noise limit for the present setup. For a longer averaging time the random drift was 5.6 × 10−3 deg/h (τ = 90 sec), showing a slight departure from the shot-noise limit. The problems encountered in the present apparatus, as well as those that are critical in the development of much larger resonators for geophysics and relativity applications, are discussed.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. E. Ash, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (personal communication, December1976);D. H. Eckhardt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 172 (1978).
  2. M. O. Scully, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, H. Walther, K. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979);M. P. Haugan, M. O. Scully, K. Just, Phys. Lett. 77A, 88 (1980).
  3. E. J. Post, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. H. Rosenthal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1143 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Ezekiel, S. R. Balsamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 478 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Vali, R. W. Shorthill, Appl. Opt. 15, 1099 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Ezekiel, J. A. Cole, J. Harrison, G. Sanders, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 68 (1978).
  8. L. A. Hackel, R. P. Hackel, S. Ezekiel, Metrologia 13, 141 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. V. Pound, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 490 (1946);R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, Colo. 80309 (personal communication);G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980);M. Prentiss, B. Peuse, G. Sanders, S. Ezekiel, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Progress Report #123, January1981 (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

S. Ezekiel, J. A. Cole, J. Harrison, G. Sanders, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 68 (1978).

1977 (2)

L. A. Hackel, R. P. Hackel, S. Ezekiel, Metrologia 13, 141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Ezekiel, S. R. Balsamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 478 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1967 (1)

E. J. Post, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

1946 (1)

R. V. Pound, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 490 (1946);R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, Colo. 80309 (personal communication);G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980);M. Prentiss, B. Peuse, G. Sanders, S. Ezekiel, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Progress Report #123, January1981 (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ash, M. E.

M. E. Ash, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (personal communication, December1976);D. H. Eckhardt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 172 (1978).

Balsamo, S. R.

S. Ezekiel, S. R. Balsamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 478 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. A.

S. Ezekiel, J. A. Cole, J. Harrison, G. Sanders, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 68 (1978).

Ezekiel, S.

S. Ezekiel, J. A. Cole, J. Harrison, G. Sanders, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 68 (1978).

L. A. Hackel, R. P. Hackel, S. Ezekiel, Metrologia 13, 141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Ezekiel, S. R. Balsamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 478 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, L. A.

L. A. Hackel, R. P. Hackel, S. Ezekiel, Metrologia 13, 141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, R. P.

L. A. Hackel, R. P. Hackel, S. Ezekiel, Metrologia 13, 141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, J.

S. Ezekiel, J. A. Cole, J. Harrison, G. Sanders, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 68 (1978).

Post, E. J.

E. J. Post, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Pound, R. V.

R. V. Pound, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 490 (1946);R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, Colo. 80309 (personal communication);G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980);M. Prentiss, B. Peuse, G. Sanders, S. Ezekiel, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Progress Report #123, January1981 (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenthal, A. H.

Sanders, G.

S. Ezekiel, J. A. Cole, J. Harrison, G. Sanders, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 68 (1978).

Scully, M. O.

M. O. Scully, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, H. Walther, K. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979);M. P. Haugan, M. O. Scully, K. Just, Phys. Lett. 77A, 88 (1980).

Shorthill, R. W.

Vali, V.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Ezekiel, S. R. Balsamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 478 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Metrologia (1)

L. A. Hackel, R. P. Hackel, S. Ezekiel, Metrologia 13, 141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

S. Ezekiel, J. A. Cole, J. Harrison, G. Sanders, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 68 (1978).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

E. J. Post, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. V. Pound, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 490 (1946);R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, Colo. 80309 (personal communication);G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980);M. Prentiss, B. Peuse, G. Sanders, S. Ezekiel, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Progress Report #123, January1981 (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. E. Ash, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (personal communication, December1976);D. H. Eckhardt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 172 (1978).

M. O. Scully, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, H. Walther, K. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979);M. P. Haugan, M. O. Scully, K. Just, Phys. Lett. 77A, 88 (1980).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of passive ring resonator-rotation sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Random drift error δΩ versus integration time τ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Oscillatory nonreciprocal frequency shift caused by enhanced backscattering with and without phase modulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a, Setup for obtaining discriminant using a phase-modulated laser and detecting the field reflected by the cavity; b and c, resulting discriminants (same vertical scale) obtained for modulation frequency of 4 and 10 MHz, respectively; d, conventional discriminant produced by cavity-length modulation at 32 kHz.

Equations (4)

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Δ f = f 2 f 1 = ( 4 λ P ) A Ω ,
δ Ω = ( λ P 4 A ) δ f .
δ f 2 Γ ( N ph η D τ ) 1 / 2 ,
δ Ω λ c ( 1 R ) 8 π A ( η D N ph τ ) 1 / 2 ,

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