Abstract

We have performed a high-resolution study of the interaction of two monochromatic laser fields with a prepared three-level cascade system in an atomic beam of sodium. The pump laser was held fixed near resonance with the lower levels while the probe laser was tuned over the upper two levels. For weak fields we observed a probe line shape that agrees with theory and shows that the intermediate level does not contribute to the linewidth. Data taken with a strong pump field were in disagreement with theory, but this disagreement is removed when atomic recoil suffered during the interaction is included in the calculation.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. H. Autler, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 100, 703 (1955);A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 107, 1579 (1957);H. R. Schlossberg, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 150, 267 (1966);T. Hänsen, P. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 467 (1968);B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 5, 899 (1972);I. M. Beterov, V. P. Chebotayev, in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders et al., eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1974), Vol. 3, Part 1;B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. A 5, 1522 (1972);R. M. Whiteley, C. R. Stroud, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1498 (1976);C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Reynaud, J. Phys. B 10, 345 (1977);C. Delsart, J. C. Keller, J. Phys. B 9, 2769 (1976);S. Ezekiel, F. Y. Wu, in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. R. Gray, C. R. Stroud, Opt. Commun. 25, 359 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. A 15, 227 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Miles, Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. 2, 2 (1969).
  5. F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Laser Focus 15(3), 78 (1977).
  6. As is shown in Fig. 2, the two laser beams entering the reference cavity of laser # 1 are orthogonally polarized so that they can be separated by a beam splitter and two polarizing filters.
  7. R. Frish, Z. Phys. 86, 42 (1933);J. L. Picque, J. L. Vialle, Opt. Commun. 5, 337 (1972);R. Schieder, H. Walther, L. Woste, Opt. Commun. 5, 337 (1972);A. F. Bernhardt, D. E. Duerre, J. R. Simpson, L. L. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 617 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. R. Hemmer, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Opt. Commun. 38, 105 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1981

P. R. Hemmer, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Opt. Commun. 38, 105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978

H. R. Gray, C. R. Stroud, Opt. Commun. 25, 359 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. A 15, 227 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Laser Focus 15(3), 78 (1977).

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1969

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Miles, Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. 2, 2 (1969).

1955

S. H. Autler, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 100, 703 (1955);A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 107, 1579 (1957);H. R. Schlossberg, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 150, 267 (1966);T. Hänsen, P. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 467 (1968);B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 5, 899 (1972);I. M. Beterov, V. P. Chebotayev, in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders et al., eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1974), Vol. 3, Part 1;B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. A 5, 1522 (1972);R. M. Whiteley, C. R. Stroud, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1498 (1976);C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Reynaud, J. Phys. B 10, 345 (1977);C. Delsart, J. C. Keller, J. Phys. B 9, 2769 (1976);S. Ezekiel, F. Y. Wu, in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978).
[CrossRef]

1933

R. Frish, Z. Phys. 86, 42 (1933);J. L. Picque, J. L. Vialle, Opt. Commun. 5, 337 (1972);R. Schieder, H. Walther, L. Woste, Opt. Commun. 5, 337 (1972);A. F. Bernhardt, D. E. Duerre, J. R. Simpson, L. L. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 617 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Autler, S. H.

S. H. Autler, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 100, 703 (1955);A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 107, 1579 (1957);H. R. Schlossberg, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 150, 267 (1966);T. Hänsen, P. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 467 (1968);B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 5, 899 (1972);I. M. Beterov, V. P. Chebotayev, in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders et al., eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1974), Vol. 3, Part 1;B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. A 5, 1522 (1972);R. M. Whiteley, C. R. Stroud, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1498 (1976);C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Reynaud, J. Phys. B 10, 345 (1977);C. Delsart, J. C. Keller, J. Phys. B 9, 2769 (1976);S. Ezekiel, F. Y. Wu, in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978).
[CrossRef]

Ducloy, M.

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ezekiel, S.

P. R. Hemmer, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Opt. Commun. 38, 105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Laser Focus 15(3), 78 (1977).

R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. A 15, 227 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Frish, R.

R. Frish, Z. Phys. 86, 42 (1933);J. L. Picque, J. L. Vialle, Opt. Commun. 5, 337 (1972);R. Schieder, H. Walther, L. Woste, Opt. Commun. 5, 337 (1972);A. F. Bernhardt, D. E. Duerre, J. R. Simpson, L. L. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 617 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gray, H. R.

H. R. Gray, C. R. Stroud, Opt. Commun. 25, 359 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Grove, R. E.

R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. A 15, 227 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hemmer, P. R.

P. R. Hemmer, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Opt. Commun. 38, 105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Miles, B. M.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Miles, Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. 2, 2 (1969).

Mollow, B. R.

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. W.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Miles, Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. 2, 2 (1969).

Stroud, C. R.

H. R. Gray, C. R. Stroud, Opt. Commun. 25, 359 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

S. H. Autler, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 100, 703 (1955);A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 107, 1579 (1957);H. R. Schlossberg, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 150, 267 (1966);T. Hänsen, P. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 467 (1968);B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 5, 899 (1972);I. M. Beterov, V. P. Chebotayev, in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders et al., eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1974), Vol. 3, Part 1;B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. A 5, 1522 (1972);R. M. Whiteley, C. R. Stroud, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1498 (1976);C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Reynaud, J. Phys. B 10, 345 (1977);C. Delsart, J. C. Keller, J. Phys. B 9, 2769 (1976);S. Ezekiel, F. Y. Wu, in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, W. L.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Miles, Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. 2, 2 (1969).

Wu, F. Y.

P. R. Hemmer, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Opt. Commun. 38, 105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Laser Focus 15(3), 78 (1977).

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. A 15, 227 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Laser Focus 15(3), 78 (1977).

Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Miles, Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. 2, 2 (1969).

Opt. Commun.

H. R. Gray, C. R. Stroud, Opt. Commun. 25, 359 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Hemmer, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Opt. Commun. 38, 105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

S. H. Autler, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 100, 703 (1955);A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 107, 1579 (1957);H. R. Schlossberg, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 150, 267 (1966);T. Hänsen, P. Toschek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 467 (1968);B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 5, 899 (1972);I. M. Beterov, V. P. Chebotayev, in Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders et al., eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1974), Vol. 3, Part 1;B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. A 5, 1522 (1972);R. M. Whiteley, C. R. Stroud, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1498 (1976);C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Reynaud, J. Phys. B 10, 345 (1977);C. Delsart, J. C. Keller, J. Phys. B 9, 2769 (1976);S. Ezekiel, F. Y. Wu, in Multiphoton Processes, J. H. Eberly, P. Lambropoulos, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

R. E. Grove, F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. A 15, 227 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, B. R. Mollow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys.

R. Frish, Z. Phys. 86, 42 (1933);J. L. Picque, J. L. Vialle, Opt. Commun. 5, 337 (1972);R. Schieder, H. Walther, L. Woste, Opt. Commun. 5, 337 (1972);A. F. Bernhardt, D. E. Duerre, J. R. Simpson, L. L. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 617 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

As is shown in Fig. 2, the two laser beams entering the reference cavity of laser # 1 are orthogonally polarized so that they can be separated by a beam splitter and two polarizing filters.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cascade three-level system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Probe line shape for weak pump field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Probe line shape for on-resonance strong pump field (130 mW/cm2): a, theory; b, data with superimposed recoil-modified theory; c, data with superimposed recoil-modified theory including optical-pumping beam recoil.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Probe line shape for off-resonance (+40-MHz) pump field (190 mW/cm2): a, b, and c as in Fig. 4.

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