Abstract

Double-resonance laser emission at 283.3 and 600.2 nm was used to excite gas-phase atomic lead present in an electrothermal atomizer. Buffer-gas-induced collisional energy transfer occurs to states as much as 6000 cm−1 below the highest optically pumped level. Single photons emitted from these states, whose wavelengths are as short as 202.2 nm, were detected. This study illustrates the utility and versatility of the saturated double-resonance technique for ultrasensitive and specific atomic detection (detection limits in the 10−15-g range) as well as its potential in atomic-spectroscopy and excited-state-dynamics studies.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. M. Fairbank, T. W. Hänsch, A. L. Schawlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 199 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Gelbwachs, C. F. Klein, J. E. Wessel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 489 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. L. Pan, J. V. Prodan, W. M. Fairbank, C. Y. She, Opt. Lett. 5, 459 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. Horvath, J. D. Bradshaw, J. N. Bower, M. S. Epstein, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 53, 6 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. W. Miziolek, Anal. Chem. 53, 118 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. S. Hurst, M. H. Nayfeh, J. P. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 229 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. I. Bekov, V. S. Letokhov, O. I. Matveev, V. I. Mishin, Opt. Lett. 3, 159 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Hermann, J. J. Wynne, Opt. Lett. 5, 236 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

1981 (3)

J. J. Horvath, J. D. Bradshaw, J. N. Bower, M. S. Epstein, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 53, 6 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Miziolek, Anal. Chem. 53, 118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gelbwachs, R. S. Nesbitt, R. P. Frueholz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 77, 222 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

1979 (3)

J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Turk, J. C. Travis, J. R. DeVoe, T. C. O'Haver, Anal Chem. 51,1890 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

1977 (2)

G. S. Hurst, M. H. Nayfeh, J. P. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 229 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gelbwachs, C. F. Klein, J. E. Wessel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 489 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Bekov, G. I.

Bower, J. N.

J. J. Horvath, J. D. Bradshaw, J. N. Bower, M. S. Epstein, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 53, 6 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bradshaw, J. D.

J. J. Horvath, J. D. Bradshaw, J. N. Bower, M. S. Epstein, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 53, 6 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cariou, J.

J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Conway, J. G.

Desai, P. D.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

DeVoe, J. R.

G. C. Turk, J. C. Travis, J. R. DeVoe, T. C. O'Haver, Anal Chem. 51,1890 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Engleman, R.

Epstein, M. S.

J. J. Horvath, J. D. Bradshaw, J. N. Bower, M. S. Epstein, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 53, 6 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fairbank, W. M.

Frueholz, R. P.

J. A. Gelbwachs, R. S. Nesbitt, R. P. Frueholz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 77, 222 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gelbwachs, J. A.

J. A. Gelbwachs, R. S. Nesbitt, R. P. Frueholz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 77, 222 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gelbwachs, C. F. Klein, J. E. Wessel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 489 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gleiser, M.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Guern, Y.

J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hawkins, D. T.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Hermann, J. P.

Horvath, J. J.

J. J. Horvath, J. D. Bradshaw, J. N. Bower, M. S. Epstein, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 53, 6 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hultgren, R.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Hurst, G. S.

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Hurst, M. H. Nayfeh, J. P. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 229 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Johannin-Gilles, A.

J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

Kelley, K. K.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Klein, C. F.

J. A. Gelbwachs, C. F. Klein, J. E. Wessel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 489 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, S. D.

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

Lotrian, J.

J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Matveev, O. I.

Mishin, V. I.

Miziolek, A. W.

A. W. Miziolek, Anal. Chem. 53, 118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nayfeh, M. H.

G. S. Hurst, M. H. Nayfeh, J. P. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 229 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nesbitt, R. S.

J. A. Gelbwachs, R. S. Nesbitt, R. P. Frueholz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 77, 222 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O'Haver, T. C.

G. C. Turk, J. C. Travis, J. R. DeVoe, T. C. O'Haver, Anal Chem. 51,1890 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Paisner, J. A.

Pan, C. L.

Payne, M. G.

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Prodan, J. V.

Schawlow, A. L.

She, C. Y.

Solarz, R. W.

Travis, J. C.

G. C. Turk, J. C. Travis, J. R. DeVoe, T. C. O'Haver, Anal Chem. 51,1890 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Turk, G. C.

G. C. Turk, J. C. Travis, J. R. DeVoe, T. C. O'Haver, Anal Chem. 51,1890 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wagman, D. D.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Wessel, J. E.

J. A. Gelbwachs, C. F. Klein, J. E. Wessel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 489 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

J. J. Horvath, J. D. Bradshaw, J. N. Bower, M. S. Epstein, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 53, 6 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Worden, E. F.

Wynne, J. J.

Young, J. P.

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Hurst, M. H. Nayfeh, J. P. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 229 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Anal Chem. (1)

G. C. Turk, J. C. Travis, J. R. DeVoe, T. C. O'Haver, Anal Chem. 51,1890 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

J. J. Horvath, J. D. Bradshaw, J. N. Bower, M. S. Epstein, J. D. Winefordner, Anal. Chem. 53, 6 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Miziolek, Anal. Chem. 53, 118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. S. Hurst, M. H. Nayfeh, J. P. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 229 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gelbwachs, C. F. Klein, J. E. Wessel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 489 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Gelbwachs, R. S. Nesbitt, R. P. Frueholz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 77, 222 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

G. S. Hurst, M. G. Payne, S. D. Kramer, J. P. Young, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 767 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Partial energy-level diagram for lead.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Saturation curve in which the intensity of the second laser, λ2, is plotted against the photon-emission signal that is due to the P 1 ° 1 D 2 1 transition at 357.3 nm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Single Emission Lines

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Table 2 Grouped Emission Lines

Equations (18)

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P 2 ° 3 ( 48189 ) D 2 1 ( 21458 )
P 2 ° 3 ( 48189 ) P 2 3 ( 10650 )
P 2 ° 3 ( 48189 ) P 1 3 ( 7819 )
P 1 ° 1 ( 49440 ) D 2 1 ( 21458 )
P 1 ° 1 ( 40440 ) P 2 3 ( 10650 )
P 1 ° 1 ( 40440 ) P 3 0 ( 0 )
P 0 ° 3 ( 53475 ) P 2 3 ( 10650 )
P 1 ° 3 ( 53511 ) P 2 3 ( 10650 )
P 0 ° 3 ( 48726 ) D 2 1 ( 21458 )
P 1 ° 3 ( 48687 ) D 2 1 ( 21458 )
P 0 ° 3 ( 48726 ) P 1 3 ( 7819 )
P 1 ° 3 ( 48687 ) P 1 3 ( 7819 )
P 0 ° 3 ( 48726 ) P 0 3 ( 0 )
P 1 ° 3 ( 48687 ) P 0 3 ( 0 )
D 1 ° 3 ( 46069 ) P 1 3 ( 7819 )
D 2 ° 3 ( 46061 ) P 1 3 ( 7819 )
D 1 ° 3 ( 46069 ) P 0 3 ( 0 )
D 2 ° 3 ( 46061 ) P 0 3 ( 0 )

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