Abstract

By using an evaporated silver film that has a continuously varying thickness, we have demonstrated the dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on the dielectric properties of the film. These results support local field models that are based on metal-particle resonances for SERS.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Fleischman, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. McQuillan, P. J. Hendra, M. Fleischman, J. Electroanal. Chem. 65, 933 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Moskovits, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4159 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. G. Bergman et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 68, 412 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, P. A. Wolff, Phys. Lett. 77A, 381 (1980).
  6. J. E. Rowe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1770 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. H. Wood, M. V. Klein, Solid State Commun. 35, 263 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Kirtley, J. C. Tsang, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 278 (1979).
  9. E. Burstein et al., Solid State Commun. 29, 567 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Hexter, M. G. Albrecht, Spectrochim. Acta 35A, 233 (1979).
  11. C. Y. Chen, E. Burstein, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 25, 424 (1980).
  12. J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, Trans. Faraday Soc. II 75, 790 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. S. Sennett, G. D. Scott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 203 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  16. S. Yoshida, T. Yamaguchi, A. Kinbara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 62 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1563 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 21, 173 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. L. McCarthy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 135 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Wolter, Z. Phys. 105, 269 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. A. Osborn, Phys. Rev. 67, 351 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. C. Stoner, Philos. Mag. 36, 803 (1945).
  23. A. M. Glass et al., Opt. Lett. 5, 368 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. S. Wang, H. Chew, M. Kerker, Appl. Opt. 19, 2256 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Burstein, C. Y. Chen, in Proceedings of the VII International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. F. Murphy, ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1980), p. 346.

1980 (7)

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, P. A. Wolff, Phys. Lett. 77A, 381 (1980).

J. E. Rowe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1770 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wood, M. V. Klein, Solid State Commun. 35, 263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, E. Burstein, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 25, 424 (1980).

J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass et al., Opt. Lett. 5, 368 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wang, H. Chew, M. Kerker, Appl. Opt. 19, 2256 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (5)

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, Trans. Faraday Soc. II 75, 790 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Kirtley, J. C. Tsang, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 278 (1979).

E. Burstein et al., Solid State Commun. 29, 567 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hexter, M. G. Albrecht, Spectrochim. Acta 35A, 233 (1979).

J. G. Bergman et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 68, 412 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. Moskovits, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

S. L. McCarthy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. J. McQuillan, P. J. Hendra, M. Fleischman, J. Electroanal. Chem. 65, 933 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

M. Fleischman, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 21, 173 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1950 (1)

1945 (2)

J. A. Osborn, Phys. Rev. 67, 351 (1945).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Stoner, Philos. Mag. 36, 803 (1945).

1937 (1)

H. Wolter, Z. Phys. 105, 269 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1904 (1)

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M. G.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, Trans. Faraday Soc. II 75, 790 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hexter, M. G. Albrecht, Spectrochim. Acta 35A, 233 (1979).

Bergman, J. G.

J. G. Bergman et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 68, 412 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Blatchford, C. G.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, Trans. Faraday Soc. II 75, 790 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Burstein, E.

C. Y. Chen, E. Burstein, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 25, 424 (1980).

E. Burstein et al., Solid State Commun. 29, 567 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. Burstein, C. Y. Chen, in Proceedings of the VII International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. F. Murphy, ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1980), p. 346.

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, E. Burstein, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 25, 424 (1980).

E. Burstein, C. Y. Chen, in Proceedings of the VII International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. F. Murphy, ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1980), p. 346.

Chew, H.

Creighton, J. A.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, Trans. Faraday Soc. II 75, 790 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fleischman, M.

A. J. McQuillan, P. J. Hendra, M. Fleischman, J. Electroanal. Chem. 65, 933 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischman, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gersten, J.

J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

Hendra, P. J.

A. J. McQuillan, P. J. Hendra, M. Fleischman, J. Electroanal. Chem. 65, 933 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischman, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hexter, R. M.

R. M. Hexter, M. G. Albrecht, Spectrochim. Acta 35A, 233 (1979).

Kerker, M.

Kinbara, A.

Kirtley, J. R.

J. R. Kirtley, J. C. Tsang, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 278 (1979).

Klein, M. V.

T. H. Wood, M. V. Klein, Solid State Commun. 35, 263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell-Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, P. A. Wolff, Phys. Lett. 77A, 381 (1980).

McCarthy, S. L.

S. L. McCarthy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McQuillan, A. J.

A. J. McQuillan, P. J. Hendra, M. Fleischman, J. Electroanal. Chem. 65, 933 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischman, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

M. Moskovits, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nitzan, A.

J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, J. A.

J. A. Osborn, Phys. Rev. 67, 351 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Platzman, P. M.

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, P. A. Wolff, Phys. Lett. 77A, 381 (1980).

Rowe, J. E.

J. E. Rowe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1770 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Scott, G. D.

Sennett, R. S.

Stoner, E. C.

E. C. Stoner, Philos. Mag. 36, 803 (1945).

Tsang, J. C.

J. R. Kirtley, J. C. Tsang, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 278 (1979).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Wang, D. S.

Wolff, P. A.

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, P. A. Wolff, Phys. Lett. 77A, 381 (1980).

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, Z. Phys. 105, 269 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

T. H. Wood, M. V. Klein, Solid State Commun. 35, 263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

Yoshida, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (2)

J. R. Kirtley, J. C. Tsang, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 278 (1979).

C. Y. Chen, E. Burstein, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 25, 424 (1980).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Fleischman, P. J. Hendra, A. J. McQuillan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Bergman et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 68, 412 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

M. Moskovits, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

A. J. McQuillan, P. J. Hendra, M. Fleischman, J. Electroanal. Chem. 65, 933 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. L. McCarthy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Mag. (1)

E. C. Stoner, Philos. Mag. 36, 803 (1945).

Phys. Lett. (1)

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, P. A. Wolff, Phys. Lett. 77A, 381 (1980).

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Osborn, Phys. Rev. 67, 351 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. E. Rowe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1770 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (2)

T. H. Wood, M. V. Klein, Solid State Commun. 35, 263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. Burstein et al., Solid State Commun. 29, 567 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

R. M. Hexter, M. G. Albrecht, Spectrochim. Acta 35A, 233 (1979).

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 21, 173 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc. II (1)

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, Trans. Faraday Soc. II 75, 790 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

H. Wolter, Z. Phys. 105, 269 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

E. Burstein, C. Y. Chen, in Proceedings of the VII International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. F. Murphy, ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1980), p. 346.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of the absorbance, Rayleigh scattering, and Raman scattering versus the mass thickness. Curve a, absorbance of the aggregated silver film; curve b, Rayleigh scattering of the aggregated silver film (normalized); and curve c, normalized Raman intensity of the C≡N vibration (2144 cm−1). The number of photon counts varied over approximately 3 orders of magnitude, from a few counts on the thick end of the wedge to above a thousand counts at the maximum. (Incident laser power ≃100 mW at 514.5 nm.) At the bottom of the figure are presented scanning electron micrographs of the silver film. They show that the films are formed of regularly distributed hemi-ellipsoidal islands with a spacing of the order of the average size.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the imaginary part of the silver-film effective dielectric constant ( ˜), the normalized Raman-scattering efficiency, and the variation of the local field factors as given by (AlAs/dm2TsTl) versus mass thickness.

Equations (4)

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˜ 2 λ 2 π d o A T n ,
˜ 2 ( ω l ) = q 2 | f l | 2 = d m d o 2 [ 1 + ( 1 1 ) ( β B ) ] 2 + [ ( β B ) 2 ] 2 ,
I s α ( N σ | f l | 2 | f s | 2 I l ) ,
I s α 1 q 2 ˜ 2 ( ω s ) ˜ 2 ( ω l ) α A s A l q 2 d m 2 T s T l .

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