Abstract

The operation of a scanning optical correlator is described and demonstrated. The device is shown to combine the advantages of a coherent correlator, which makes preprocessing operations easy to realize, with the advantages of direct-image-casting correlators, which are insensitive to setup misalignment and imperfections and do not require the preparation of any filter. For some applications, these attributes may compensate for the fact that scanning optical systems are inherently slower than parallel, frequency plane processors.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. W. Lohmann, “Several optical correlation methods,” in Proceedings of the International Optical Computer Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1974).
  2. A. B. Vander Lugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 2 (1964).
  3. P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Noise and coherence in optical image processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 559, (1978).P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Noise and coherence in optical image processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 721 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. L. Rogers, Noncoherent Optical Processing (Wiley, New York, 1977).
  5. J. D. Armitage, A. W. Lohmann, “Character recognition by incoherent spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 4, 461 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Lowenthal, A. Wertz, “Filtrage des frequences spatiales en lumiere incoherente,” C. R. Acad. Sci. B 266, 542 (1968).
  7. A. W. Lohmann, “Matched filtering with self-luminous objects,” Appl. Opt. 7, 561 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. W. Lohmann, H. W. Werlich, “Incoherent matched filtering with Fourier holograms,” Appl. Opt. 10, 670 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Monahan, K. Bromley, R. P. Bocker, “Incoherent optical correlators,” Proc. IEEE 65, 121 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  11. A. Lacourt, “Un correlateur optique par filtrage chromatique,” Opt. Commun. 27, 47 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. O. Bartlett, “Image correlation in white light by wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 29, 37 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Indebetouw, “Image formation in optical scanning systems,” submitted to Opt. Commun.
  14. C. T. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Image formation in the scanning microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. T. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Image formation in scanning microscopes with partially coherent source and detector,” Opt. Acta 25, 315 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. O. Bartlett, “Image correlation in white light by wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 29, 37 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (3)

C. T. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Image formation in scanning microscopes with partially coherent source and detector,” Opt. Acta 25, 315 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Noise and coherence in optical image processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 559, (1978).P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Noise and coherence in optical image processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Lacourt, “Un correlateur optique par filtrage chromatique,” Opt. Commun. 27, 47 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

M. A. Monahan, K. Bromley, R. P. Bocker, “Incoherent optical correlators,” Proc. IEEE 65, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. T. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Image formation in the scanning microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1968 (2)

S. Lowenthal, A. Wertz, “Filtrage des frequences spatiales en lumiere incoherente,” C. R. Acad. Sci. B 266, 542 (1968).

A. W. Lohmann, “Matched filtering with self-luminous objects,” Appl. Opt. 7, 561 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

A. B. Vander Lugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 2 (1964).

Armitage, J. D.

Bartlett, H. O.

H. O. Bartlett, “Image correlation in white light by wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 29, 37 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bocker, R. P.

M. A. Monahan, K. Bromley, R. P. Bocker, “Incoherent optical correlators,” Proc. IEEE 65, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bromley, K.

M. A. Monahan, K. Bromley, R. P. Bocker, “Incoherent optical correlators,” Proc. IEEE 65, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chavel, P.

P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Noise and coherence in optical image processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 559, (1978).P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Noise and coherence in optical image processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, A.

C. T. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Image formation in the scanning microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Indebetouw, G.

G. Indebetouw, “Image formation in optical scanning systems,” submitted to Opt. Commun.

Lacourt, A.

A. Lacourt, “Un correlateur optique par filtrage chromatique,” Opt. Commun. 27, 47 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

Lowenthal, S.

P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Noise and coherence in optical image processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 559, (1978).P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Noise and coherence in optical image processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. Lowenthal, A. Wertz, “Filtrage des frequences spatiales en lumiere incoherente,” C. R. Acad. Sci. B 266, 542 (1968).

Monahan, M. A.

M. A. Monahan, K. Bromley, R. P. Bocker, “Incoherent optical correlators,” Proc. IEEE 65, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, G. L.

G. L. Rogers, Noncoherent Optical Processing (Wiley, New York, 1977).

Sheppard, C. T. R.

C. T. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Image formation in scanning microscopes with partially coherent source and detector,” Opt. Acta 25, 315 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. T. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Image formation in the scanning microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vander Lugt, A. B.

A. B. Vander Lugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 2 (1964).

Werlich, H. W.

Wertz, A.

S. Lowenthal, A. Wertz, “Filtrage des frequences spatiales en lumiere incoherente,” C. R. Acad. Sci. B 266, 542 (1968).

Wilson, T.

C. T. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Image formation in scanning microscopes with partially coherent source and detector,” Opt. Acta 25, 315 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

C. R. Acad. Sci. B (1)

S. Lowenthal, A. Wertz, “Filtrage des frequences spatiales en lumiere incoherente,” C. R. Acad. Sci. B 266, 542 (1968).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. B. Vander Lugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 2 (1964).

J. Opt. Soc. Am (1)

P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Noise and coherence in optical image processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 559, (1978).P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Noise and coherence in optical image processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. O. Bartlett, “Image correlation in white light by wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 29, 37 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (2)

C. T. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Image formation in the scanning microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. T. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Image formation in scanning microscopes with partially coherent source and detector,” Opt. Acta 25, 315 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Lacourt, “Un correlateur optique par filtrage chromatique,” Opt. Commun. 27, 47 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. A. Monahan, K. Bromley, R. P. Bocker, “Incoherent optical correlators,” Proc. IEEE 65, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

G. L. Rogers, Noncoherent Optical Processing (Wiley, New York, 1977).

A. W. Lohmann, “Several optical correlation methods,” in Proceedings of the International Optical Computer Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1974).

G. Indebetouw, “Image formation in optical scanning systems,” submitted to Opt. Commun.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a scanning optical correlator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Input function g(x). (B) Reference function f(x).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial low-pass filter, 0–5 mm−1. (A) Filtered reference function, (B) oscilloscope display of the correlation field, (C) trace through the autocorrelation peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3. Spatial-bandpass filter, 3–8 mm−1.

Equations (4)

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U s ( x ) = + f ( x x sc x ) p ( x ) d x = f * p ,
U d ( x 0 ) = + g ( x ) U s ( x ) exp ( 2 i π x x 0 / λ F ) d x .
S ( x sc ) = | + a ( x 0 ) U d ( x 0 ) d x 0 | 2 .
S ( x sc ) = | + g ( x ) f ( x x ) p ( x x sc ) d x d x | 2 = | p * ( f * g ) | 2 ,

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