Abstract

A means for obtaining broadband photophoretic spectra is described. The sensitivity of the technique is found in accordance with radiometric theory to increase markedly with pressure reduction below 1 atm. Noise oscillation induced by radiometric torques is contained through the use of electronic damping. The first broadband spectrum on a single crystallite (~5 μm) of CdS is presented.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Ehrenhaft, Phys. Z. 18, 352 (1917).
  2. O. Preining, in Aerosol Science, C. W. Davies, ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), pp. 11–135.
  3. M. Pope, S. Arnold, L. Rozenshtien, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 589 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. D. Reed, J. Aerosol Sci. 8, 123 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. F. M. Akhtaruzzaman, S. P. Lin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 61, 170 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Arnold, Y. Amani, A. Orenstien (in preparation).
  7. H. Fletcher, Phys. Rev. 4, 440 (1914).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Rosencwaig, in Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection, Y.-H. Pao, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 21.
  10. D. Dutton, Phys. Rev. 112, 785 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. W. Dusel, M. Kerker, D. D. Cooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 55 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Arnold, J. Aerosol Sci. 10, 49 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1979 (3)

M. Pope, S. Arnold, L. Rozenshtien, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 589 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Dusel, M. Kerker, D. D. Cooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 55 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, J. Aerosol Sci. 10, 49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (3)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Reed, J. Aerosol Sci. 8, 123 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. F. M. Akhtaruzzaman, S. P. Lin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 61, 170 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

D. Dutton, Phys. Rev. 112, 785 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1917 (1)

F. Ehrenhaft, Phys. Z. 18, 352 (1917).

1914 (1)

H. Fletcher, Phys. Rev. 4, 440 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Akhtaruzzaman, A. F. M.

A. F. M. Akhtaruzzaman, S. P. Lin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 61, 170 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Amani, Y.

S. Arnold, Y. Amani, A. Orenstien (in preparation).

Arnold, S.

M. Pope, S. Arnold, L. Rozenshtien, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 589 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, J. Aerosol Sci. 10, 49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, Y. Amani, A. Orenstien (in preparation).

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. D.

Dusel, P. W.

Dutton, D.

D. Dutton, Phys. Rev. 112, 785 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ehrenhaft, F.

F. Ehrenhaft, Phys. Z. 18, 352 (1917).

Fletcher, H.

H. Fletcher, Phys. Rev. 4, 440 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

Lin, S. P.

A. F. M. Akhtaruzzaman, S. P. Lin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 61, 170 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Orenstien, A.

S. Arnold, Y. Amani, A. Orenstien (in preparation).

Pope, M.

M. Pope, S. Arnold, L. Rozenshtien, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 589 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Preining, O.

O. Preining, in Aerosol Science, C. W. Davies, ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), pp. 11–135.

Reed, L. D.

L. D. Reed, J. Aerosol Sci. 8, 123 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig, in Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection, Y.-H. Pao, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 21.

Rozenshtien, L.

M. Pope, S. Arnold, L. Rozenshtien, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 589 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Pope, S. Arnold, L. Rozenshtien, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 589 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (2)

L. D. Reed, J. Aerosol Sci. 8, 123 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, J. Aerosol Sci. 10, 49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

A. F. M. Akhtaruzzaman, S. P. Lin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 61, 170 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Phys. Rev. (2)

H. Fletcher, Phys. Rev. 4, 440 (1914).
[CrossRef]

D. Dutton, Phys. Rev. 112, 785 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Z. (1)

F. Ehrenhaft, Phys. Z. 18, 352 (1917).

Other (3)

O. Preining, in Aerosol Science, C. W. Davies, ed. (Academic, New York, 1966), pp. 11–135.

A. Rosencwaig, in Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection, Y.-H. Pao, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 21.

S. Arnold, Y. Amani, A. Orenstien (in preparation).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Servomechanism used for levitating samples and measuring the photophoretic force. The excitation source is described in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photophoretic spectrum of a crystallite of CdS. The crystallite was estimated to be between 5 and 10 μm in size. Resolution of the discharge-lamp–monochromator excitation source was 96 Å.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pressure dependence of the photophoretic force-to-weight ratio Fp/mg for a CdS crystallite having an equivalent spherical radius of 2.7 μm. The excitation source was tuned to 500 nm with 96-Å resolution. Kn is the Knudsen number of the particle–gas system.

Equations (2)

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F P = + 2 π K μ 2 a R f I P M ( 1 K S + 2 K F ) ,
F p m g = 9 8 μ 2 I ( K f ) ρ g ρ s T g a 2 ( K S + 2 K F ) ,

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