Abstract

Conjugate-wave-front generation by degenerate four-wave mixing is used to produce images with a resolution better than 500 lines/mm with 514.5-nm light.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. B. Champagne, N. G. Massey, Appl. Opt. 8, 1879–1885 (1969), and references therein.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. W. Hellwarth, “Generation of time reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1–3 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. M. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, “Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Yariv, “Phase conjugate optics and real time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650–660 (1978); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 524 (1979), and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Lu, Proc. IEEE 56, 116 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. F. Liao, presented at Second Conference on Dynamical Processes in the Excited States of Ions and Molecules in Solids, Madison, Wisc., June 18–20, 1979.
  7. J. D. Cuthbert, Solid State Technol. 20, 59–69 (1977).
  8. P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, “Continuous-wave backward-wave generation by degenerate four-wave mixing in ruby,” Opt. Lett. 3, 4–9 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, “Observation of amplified reflection by degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor,” Opt. Lett. 2, 58–60 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. S. Hamilton, D. Heiman, J. Feinberg, R. W. Hellwarth, “Spatial-diffusion measurements in impurity-doped solids by degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 4, 124–125 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. The conjugated image of a transmission object illuminated by a uniphase wave front should exhibit no speckle. The speckle appearing in the image plane of the microscope and recorded in Fig. 2 is not intrinsic to the wave-front conjugator and is not present in the image plane of the conjugator. Rather, this speckle results from scattering by dust particles on the microscope lenses and from scattering of spurious reflections from the beam splitter by the walls of the microscope tube. The typical speckle dimension in Fig. 2(c) is less than one fourth the size of the magnified images of the 1.0-μm-wide features. Were such speckle present in the conjugator image plane, the speckle dimensions would be less than λ/2.

1979 (1)

1978 (3)

1977 (3)

J. D. Cuthbert, Solid State Technol. 20, 59–69 (1977).

R. W. Hellwarth, “Generation of time reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1–3 (1977).
[Crossref]

D. M. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, “Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

S. Lu, Proc. IEEE 56, 116 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bjorklund, G. C.

D. M. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, “Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bloom, D. M.

Champagne, E. B.

Cuthbert, J. D.

J. D. Cuthbert, Solid State Technol. 20, 59–69 (1977).

Economou, N. P.

Feinberg, J.

Hamilton, D. S.

Heiman, D.

Hellwarth, R. W.

Liao, P. F.

Lu, S.

S. Lu, Proc. IEEE 56, 116 (1968).
[Crossref]

Massey, N. G.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Phase conjugate optics and real time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650–660 (1978); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 524 (1979), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. M. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, “Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv, “Phase conjugate optics and real time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650–660 (1978); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 524 (1979), and references therein.
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

S. Lu, Proc. IEEE 56, 116 (1968).
[Crossref]

Solid State Technol. (1)

J. D. Cuthbert, Solid State Technol. 20, 59–69 (1977).

Other (2)

P. F. Liao, presented at Second Conference on Dynamical Processes in the Excited States of Ions and Molecules in Solids, Madison, Wisc., June 18–20, 1979.

The conjugated image of a transmission object illuminated by a uniphase wave front should exhibit no speckle. The speckle appearing in the image plane of the microscope and recorded in Fig. 2 is not intrinsic to the wave-front conjugator and is not present in the image plane of the conjugator. Rather, this speckle results from scattering by dust particles on the microscope lenses and from scattering of spurious reflections from the beam splitter by the walls of the microscope tube. The typical speckle dimension in Fig. 2(c) is less than one fourth the size of the magnified images of the 1.0-μm-wide features. Were such speckle present in the conjugator image plane, the speckle dimensions would be less than λ/2.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Large-aperture wave-front-conjugation apparatus. The pump beams propagate in opposite directions through the ruby conjugator medium. The object wave is reflected into the medium by a highly symmetric beam-splitter cube. A part of the image beam is transmitted through the beam splitter and forms an image that can be magnified by the microscope and photographed. The object and image are roughly 1 mm from the face of the beam-splitter cube. Somewhat odd angles aide necessary to avoid spurious reflections and scattered light. The inset shows the wave-vector matching diagram for the overall process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A portion of a U.S. Air Force resolution test pattern as imaged by the phase conjugator. The patterns beneath the numeral 4 are composed of 5-μm lines 5 μm apart. Much of the rest of the pattern is out of focus because the focal plane of the microscope could not be made parallel to the plane of the image. The effective aperture of the conjugator was a rectangle with its long axis vertical with respect to the figure. Consequently, the vertically oriented lines are noticeably less clear than the horizontal lines. (b) 2-μm lines etched in 800-Å chromium film imaged by the phase conjugator. The lines at the bottom are 2 μm apart; at top is a single isolated line. (c) Five 1-μm lines 1 μm apart are imaged by the phase conjugator. The tips of the lines are ill defined, since the long axis of the conjugator aperture was vertical, as in the previous figures, and the diffraction-limited resolution along the short axis was 2.5 μm.

Equations (1)

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( N . A . ) 4 λ 32 π z ,

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