Abstract

A channel-waveguide interferometer with asymmetric arms, suitable for electromagnetic-field detection, is described. A π/2 intrinsic phase differential makes the output linearly proportional to the applied voltage (electromagnetic field). Horizontal and vertical electrode sets provide polarization-independent operation, with electrode lengths chosen to make the voltages approximately equal. In Ti-diffused devices in ZX-cut LiNbO3, the TE- and TM-mode outputs are equally modulated with the horizontal voltage 43% of the vertical. Output linearity over a 40-dB range and operation up to 300 MHz are demonstrated.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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