Abstract

Unique features can occur in laser-saturation spectroscopy experiments in which optical pumping is present. These are described and demonstrated in atomic sodium and barium.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4, D. L. MacAdam, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1977).
  2. M. S. Feld, in Fundamental and Applied Laser Physics, M. S. Feld, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 369, and references therein.
  3. W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. E. Murnick, M. S. Feld, M. M. Burns, T. U. Kühl, P. G. Pappas, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 195.
  5. W. Gawlik, G. W. Series, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 210.
  6. M. Pinard, C. G. Aminoff, F. Laloë, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2366 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, in Atomic Physics IV, G. zu Putlitz, E. W. Weber, A. Winnack, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975) p. 589.
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. G. Pappas, M. M. Burns, D. D. Hinshelwood, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, submitted to Phys. Rev. A.
  9. T. U. Kühl, to be published.
  10. W. E. Lamb, Phys. Rev. A 134, 1429 (1964).
  11. H. R. Schlossberg, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 150, 267 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971); C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976); Ph. Cahuzac, Opt. Commun 20, 111 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. See, for example, M. S. Feld in Frontiers in Laser Spectroscopy, R. Balian, S. Haroche, S. Liberman, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Vol. 1, p. 203.
  14. G. E. Notkin, S. G. Rautian, A. A. Feoktistov, Soy. Phys. JETP 25, 1112 (1967); M. S. Feld, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 177, 540 (1969); T. Hänsch, P. Toschek, Z. Phys. 236, 213 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, A. V. Shishaev, JETP Lett. 12, 161 (1970); B. Cagnac, G. Crynberg, F. Biraben, J. Phys. (Paris) 34, 845 (1973).
  16. E. Arimondo, G. Orrials, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conferences on High-Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy, Colloques Internationaux de C.N.R.S. 1973, p. 87; and footnote 25 of B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1013 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. M. Burns, P. G. Pappas, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 141, 429 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1979

M. Pinard, C. G. Aminoff, F. Laloë, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2366 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

M. M. Burns, P. G. Pappas, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 141, 429 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

E. Arimondo, G. Orrials, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1971

T. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971); C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976); Ph. Cahuzac, Opt. Commun 20, 111 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1970

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, A. V. Shishaev, JETP Lett. 12, 161 (1970); B. Cagnac, G. Crynberg, F. Biraben, J. Phys. (Paris) 34, 845 (1973).

1967

G. E. Notkin, S. G. Rautian, A. A. Feoktistov, Soy. Phys. JETP 25, 1112 (1967); M. S. Feld, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 177, 540 (1969); T. Hänsch, P. Toschek, Z. Phys. 236, 213 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966

H. R. Schlossberg, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 150, 267 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964

W. E. Lamb, Phys. Rev. A 134, 1429 (1964).

Aminoff, C. G.

M. Pinard, C. G. Aminoff, F. Laloë, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2366 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, G. Orrials, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Burns, M. M.

M. M. Burns, P. G. Pappas, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 141, 429 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Pappas, M. M. Burns, D. D. Hinshelwood, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

D. E. Murnick, M. S. Feld, M. M. Burns, T. U. Kühl, P. G. Pappas, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 195.

Chebotaev, V. P.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, A. V. Shishaev, JETP Lett. 12, 161 (1970); B. Cagnac, G. Crynberg, F. Biraben, J. Phys. (Paris) 34, 845 (1973).

Chebotayev, V. P.

See V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4, D. L. MacAdam, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1977).

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, in Atomic Physics IV, G. zu Putlitz, E. W. Weber, A. Winnack, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975) p. 589.
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

M. M. Burns, P. G. Pappas, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 141, 429 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conferences on High-Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy, Colloques Internationaux de C.N.R.S. 1973, p. 87; and footnote 25 of B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1013 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Feld, in Fundamental and Applied Laser Physics, M. S. Feld, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 369, and references therein.

D. E. Murnick, M. S. Feld, M. M. Burns, T. U. Kühl, P. G. Pappas, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 195.

See, for example, M. S. Feld in Frontiers in Laser Spectroscopy, R. Balian, S. Haroche, S. Liberman, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Vol. 1, p. 203.

P. G. Pappas, M. M. Burns, D. D. Hinshelwood, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Feldman, B. J.

M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conferences on High-Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy, Colloques Internationaux de C.N.R.S. 1973, p. 87; and footnote 25 of B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1013 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Feoktistov, A. A.

G. E. Notkin, S. G. Rautian, A. A. Feoktistov, Soy. Phys. JETP 25, 1112 (1967); M. S. Feld, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 177, 540 (1969); T. Hänsch, P. Toschek, Z. Phys. 236, 213 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gawlik, W.

W. Gawlik, G. W. Series, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 210.

Hänsch, T.

T. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971); C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976); Ph. Cahuzac, Opt. Commun 20, 111 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Hinshelwood, D. D.

P. G. Pappas, M. M. Burns, D. D. Hinshelwood, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Javan, A.

H. R. Schlossberg, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 150, 267 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conferences on High-Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy, Colloques Internationaux de C.N.R.S. 1973, p. 87; and footnote 25 of B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1013 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kühl, T. U.

T. U. Kühl, to be published.

D. E. Murnick, M. S. Feld, M. M. Burns, T. U. Kühl, P. G. Pappas, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 195.

Laloë, F.

M. Pinard, C. G. Aminoff, F. Laloë, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2366 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, W. E.

W. E. Lamb, Phys. Rev. A 134, 1429 (1964).

Letokhov, V. S.

See V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4, D. L. MacAdam, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1977).

Murnick, D. E.

M. M. Burns, P. G. Pappas, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 141, 429 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Murnick, M. S. Feld, M. M. Burns, T. U. Kühl, P. G. Pappas, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 195.

P. G. Pappas, M. M. Burns, D. D. Hinshelwood, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Notkin, G. E.

G. E. Notkin, S. G. Rautian, A. A. Feoktistov, Soy. Phys. JETP 25, 1112 (1967); M. S. Feld, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 177, 540 (1969); T. Hänsch, P. Toschek, Z. Phys. 236, 213 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Orrials, G.

E. Arimondo, G. Orrials, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pappas, P. G.

M. M. Burns, P. G. Pappas, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 141, 429 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Murnick, M. S. Feld, M. M. Burns, T. U. Kühl, P. G. Pappas, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 195.

P. G. Pappas, M. M. Burns, D. D. Hinshelwood, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Pinard, M.

M. Pinard, C. G. Aminoff, F. Laloë, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2366 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rautian, S. G.

G. E. Notkin, S. G. Rautian, A. A. Feoktistov, Soy. Phys. JETP 25, 1112 (1967); M. S. Feld, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 177, 540 (1969); T. Hänsch, P. Toschek, Z. Phys. 236, 213 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conferences on High-Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy, Colloques Internationaux de C.N.R.S. 1973, p. 87; and footnote 25 of B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1013 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A.

T. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971); C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976); Ph. Cahuzac, Opt. Commun 20, 111 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schlossberg, H. R.

H. R. Schlossberg, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 150, 267 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Series, G. W.

W. Gawlik, G. W. Series, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 210.

Shahin, I. S.

T. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971); C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976); Ph. Cahuzac, Opt. Commun 20, 111 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Shishaev, A. V.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, A. V. Shishaev, JETP Lett. 12, 161 (1970); B. Cagnac, G. Crynberg, F. Biraben, J. Phys. (Paris) 34, 845 (1973).

Vasilenko, L. S.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, A. V. Shishaev, JETP Lett. 12, 161 (1970); B. Cagnac, G. Crynberg, F. Biraben, J. Phys. (Paris) 34, 845 (1973).

JETP Lett.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebotaev, A. V. Shishaev, JETP Lett. 12, 161 (1970); B. Cagnac, G. Crynberg, F. Biraben, J. Phys. (Paris) 34, 845 (1973).

Lett. Nuovo Cimento

E. Arimondo, G. Orrials, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods

M. M. Burns, P. G. Pappas, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 141, 429 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

H. R. Schlossberg, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 150, 267 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

W. E. Lamb, Phys. Rev. A 134, 1429 (1964).

M. Pinard, C. G. Aminoff, F. Laloë, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2366 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971); C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976); Ph. Cahuzac, Opt. Commun 20, 111 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Soy. Phys. JETP

G. E. Notkin, S. G. Rautian, A. A. Feoktistov, Soy. Phys. JETP 25, 1112 (1967); M. S. Feld, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. 177, 540 (1969); T. Hänsch, P. Toschek, Z. Phys. 236, 213 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other

See, for example, M. S. Feld in Frontiers in Laser Spectroscopy, R. Balian, S. Haroche, S. Liberman, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Vol. 1, p. 203.

M. S. Feld, A. Sanchez, A. Javan, B. J. Feldman, in Proceedings of the Aussois Conferences on High-Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy, Colloques Internationaux de C.N.R.S. 1973, p. 87; and footnote 25 of B. J. Feldman, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1013 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Murnick, M. S. Feld, M. M. Burns, T. U. Kühl, P. G. Pappas, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 195.

W. Gawlik, G. W. Series, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walter, K. W. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 210.

See V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4, D. L. MacAdam, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1977).

M. S. Feld, in Fundamental and Applied Laser Physics, M. S. Feld, N. A. Kurnit, A. Javan, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 369, and references therein.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, in Atomic Physics IV, G. zu Putlitz, E. W. Weber, A. Winnack, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975) p. 589.
[CrossRef]

P. G. Pappas, M. M. Burns, D. D. Hinshelwood, M. S. Feld, D. E. Murnick, submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

T. U. Kühl, to be published.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Saturation spectrum of the 1S01P, transition in naturally occurring barium: LD, Lamb dip; CR, crossover resonance; double arrow, saturating beam; single arrow, probe beam. (a, b) Observed probe resonances (solid curves) and theoretical fits (lines) for I1 = 3 mW/cm2 and T = 3 μsec. The odd-isotope hyperfine resonances are specified by their upper-level F values. F lower = 3/2 in all cases. (c, d, e) Level diagram. Relative MF ground-state populations are indicated. (c) Reference absorption, no optical pumping, (d) linear-polarization configuration, (e) circular-polarization configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Saturation curve of sodium D1 line. The solid line is a least-squares fit of Eq. (3a) to the data, giving I1 = 0.7 mW/cm2. The dashed line is the calculated saturation behavior assuming no optical pumping.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser-induced line narrowing in the sodium D1 line.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I S = ω / 2 σ τ
I 0 = ω / σ T = ( 2 τ / T ) I S ,
α ( I ) = α 2 / 1 + I / I 1 ,
I 1 = ω σ τ ( 1 + τ / T ) ( 2 + Γ 1 T ) ω σ τ × 1 2 + Γ 1 T .
α p = α 1 { 1 + I 2 I 0 [ Γ 1 τ 1 + ( Ω - Ω 0 ) 2 τ 2 - 1 1 + ( Ω - Ω 0 ) 2 T 2 ] } ,

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