Abstract

We report amplification (600%) and phase conjugation of Nd:YAG laser radiation by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in solutions of a nickel dithiene Q-switched compound, BDN. Quadratic dependence of reflectivity on pump intensity at intensities well above saturation is observed, and a model based on a metastable-state susceptibility is proposed to account for this dependence. The measured relative values of the χ(3) tensor elements are given, and implications for phase conjugation of arbitrarily polarized wave fronts are discussed. Simultaneous DFWM and Nd:YAG laser Q-switching in the same BDN sample is achieved.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For a review of this subject, see A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650 (1978), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Pepper, R. L. Abrams, Opt. Lett. 3, 212 (1978).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. R. K. Jain, M. B. Klein, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 4, 328, (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. For a review of this subject, see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enno, D. Pohl, Phys. Stat. Sol. B 48, 11 (1971) , and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Wang, C. R. Giuliano, Opt. Lett. 2, 4 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. H. Drexhage, U. T. Muller-Westerhoff, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 759 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 10, 18 (1974); D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 28, 263 (1974).
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  10. M. Hercher, Appl. Opt. 6, 947 (1967); W. Buchman, Hughes Aircraft Company, Culver City, California 90230, personal communication.
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  11. A. Yariv, Opt. Commun. 25, 23 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. L. Abrams, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 2, 94 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 3, 4 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Martin, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. A. Rockwell, D. N. Garrett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 122, 187 (1977).
  16. Eastman Q-Switch Acetate Sheet, cat. no. 15064.
  17. D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 394 (1974); B. Fan, T. K. Gustafson, Opt. Commun. 15, 32 (1975); R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 59 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1979

A. Tomita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 463 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Jain, M. B. Klein, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 4, 328, (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Martin, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

1977

R. W. Hellwarth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Rockwell, D. N. Garrett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 122, 187 (1977).

1974

D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 394 (1974); B. Fan, T. K. Gustafson, Opt. Commun. 15, 32 (1975); R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 59 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 10, 18 (1974); D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 28, 263 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

K. H. Drexhage, U. T. Muller-Westerhoff, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 759 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

For a review of this subject, see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enno, D. Pohl, Phys. Stat. Sol. B 48, 11 (1971) , and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1967

Abrams, R. L.

Battra, I. P.

For a review of this subject, see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enno, D. Pohl, Phys. Stat. Sol. B 48, 11 (1971) , and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

Bushaw, B. A.

D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 394 (1974); B. Fan, T. K. Gustafson, Opt. Commun. 15, 32 (1975); R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 59 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 10, 18 (1974); D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 28, 263 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Drexhage, U. T. Muller-Westerhoff, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 759 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Enno, R. H.

For a review of this subject, see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enno, D. Pohl, Phys. Stat. Sol. B 48, 11 (1971) , and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Garrett, D. N.

D. A. Rockwell, D. N. Garrett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 122, 187 (1977).

Giuliano, C. R.

Hellwarth, R. W.

G. Martin, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Hellwarth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hercher, M.

Jain, R. K.

Klein, M. B.

Liao, P. F.

Lind, R. C.

Magde, D.

D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 394 (1974); B. Fan, T. K. Gustafson, Opt. Commun. 15, 32 (1975); R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 59 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Martin, G.

G. Martin, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Westerhoff, U. T.

K. H. Drexhage, U. T. Muller-Westerhoff, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 759 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, D.

Pohl, D.

For a review of this subject, see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enno, D. Pohl, Phys. Stat. Sol. B 48, 11 (1971) , and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, G. A.

K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 10, 18 (1974); D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 28, 263 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rockwell, D. A.

D. A. Rockwell, D. N. Garrett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 122, 187 (1977).

Tomita, A.

A. Tomita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 463 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wang, V.

Windsor, M. W.

D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 394 (1974); B. Fan, T. K. Gustafson, Opt. Commun. 15, 32 (1975); R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 59 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

For a review of this subject, see A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650 (1978), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, Opt. Commun. 25, 23 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Martin, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Tomita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 463 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

For a review of this subject, see A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 650 (1978), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

K. H. Drexhage, U. T. Muller-Westerhoff, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 759 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 394 (1974); B. Fan, T. K. Gustafson, Opt. Commun. 15, 32 (1975); R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 59 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 10, 18 (1974); D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, M. W. Windsor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 28, 263 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, Opt. Commun. 25, 23 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Stat. Sol. B

For a review of this subject, see I. P. Battra, R. H. Enno, D. Pohl, Phys. Stat. Sol. B 48, 11 (1971) , and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

D. A. Rockwell, D. N. Garrett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 122, 187 (1977).

Other

Eastman Q-Switch Acetate Sheet, cat. no. 15064.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of phase-conjugation experiment. Angles between beams have been exaggerated for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results of DFWM with various cell lengths and concentrations. The abscissa is the pump intensity modified by a factor explained in the text. The dashed line, m = 2, is the predicted behavior.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission of BDN dissolved in toluene (about 1.7 × 10−4 M, 1-mm cell) versus intensity at 1.06 μm. The low-intensity limit was measured in a Cary 14 spectrophotometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Demonstration of wave-front correction by phase conjugation. Far-field image-wave intensity distributions of (a) object beam without aberrator, (b) image beam without aberrator, (c) object beam with aberrator, (d) image beam with aberrator.

Equations (3)

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R ( α 3 - α 1 L I p T F 2 ) 2 ,
R ( n L I p T F 2 ) 2 .
R ( I p ln 1 T 0 T 0 0.24 ) 2 .

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