Abstract

We have achieved complete electro-optic TE ↔ TM mode conversion in Ti-diffused lithium niobate waveguides with as little as a 2.5-V drive. Because, for birefringent substrates like lithium niobate, TE ↔ TM conversion is wavelength dependent, our method is potentially useful for wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing. Three independently controlled mode converters, each with a 15-Å filter bandwidth and with center wavelengths separated by 80 Å, have been fabricated on a single substrate.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, Appl. Opt. 5, 73 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Masuda, J. Koyama, Appl Opt. 16, 2994 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 949 (1973).
  5. T. P. Sosnowski, G. D. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 306 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 47, 1801 (1968).
  7. See, for example, H. Kogelnik, in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1975).
  8. See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. R. Ranganath, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 376 (1977);B. Chen, A. C. Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 570 (1977);J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 748 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, unpublished.
  12. R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 748 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (4)

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

T. R. Ranganath, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 376 (1977);B. Chen, A. C. Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 570 (1977);J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Masuda, J. Koyama, Appl Opt. 16, 2994 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

T. P. Sosnowski, G. D. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 306 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 949 (1973).

1968 (1)

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 47, 1801 (1968).

1966 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, Appl. Opt. 5, 73 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 748 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, unpublished.

Boyd, G. D.

T. P. Sosnowski, G. D. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 306 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, unpublished.

Cross, P. S.

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Divino, M. D.

See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Egashira, K.

See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, Appl. Opt. 5, 73 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

See, for example, H. Kogelnik, in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1975).

Koyama, J.

M. Masuda, J. Koyama, Appl Opt. 16, 2994 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuda, M.

M. Masuda, J. Koyama, Appl Opt. 16, 2994 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 47, 1801 (1968).

Ramaswamy, V.

See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ranganath, T. R.

T. R. Ranganath, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 376 (1977);B. Chen, A. C. Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 570 (1977);J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sosnowski, T. P.

T. P. Sosnowski, G. D. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 306 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Standley, R. D.

See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Terui, H.

See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Turner, E. H.

I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, Appl. Opt. 5, 73 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

T. R. Ranganath, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 376 (1977);B. Chen, A. C. Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 570 (1977);J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 949 (1973).

Appl Opt. (1)

M. Masuda, J. Koyama, Appl Opt. 16, 2994 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, Appl. Opt. 5, 73 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Ranganath, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 376 (1977);B. Chen, A. C. Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 570 (1977);J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 748 (1979).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 47, 1801 (1968).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 949 (1973).

T. P. Sosnowski, G. D. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 306 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, unpublished.

See, for example, H. Kogelnik, in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1975).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic drawing and (b) photomicrograph of electro-optic waveguide TE ↔ TM mode converter with periodic interdigital electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured phase-matched (λ = λ0 ∼ 0.6 μm) TE → TM conversion efficiency versus drive voltage and (b) measured wavelength response for fixed voltage (V ∼2.5 V) for electrode length of 6 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured mode-conversion filter bandwidth versus electrode length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured TE → TM conversion efficiency filter response for three independently controlled mode converters with periods λ = 7, 7.12, and 7.24 μm placed along a single waveguide and (b) photograph of the device.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

κ = α π λ n s 3 r 51 V d ,
2 π λ 0 | N TE N TM | = 2 π Λ

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