Abstract

We have achieved complete electro-optic TE ↔ TM mode conversion in Ti-diffused lithium niobate waveguides with as little as a 2.5-V drive. Because, for birefringent substrates like lithium niobate, TE ↔ TM conversion is wavelength dependent, our method is potentially useful for wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing. Three independently controlled mode converters, each with a 15-Å filter bandwidth and with center wavelengths separated by 80 Å, have been fabricated on a single substrate.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, Appl. Opt. 5, 73 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Masuda, J. Koyama, Appl Opt. 16, 2994 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 949 (1973).
  5. T. P. Sosnowski, G. D. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 306 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 47, 1801 (1968).
  7. See, for example, H. Kogelnik, in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1975).
  8. See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. R. Ranganath, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 376 (1977);B. Chen, A. C. Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 570 (1977);J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 748 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, unpublished.
  12. R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1980

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 748 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

T. R. Ranganath, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 376 (1977);B. Chen, A. C. Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 570 (1977);J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Masuda, J. Koyama, Appl Opt. 16, 2994 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

T. P. Sosnowski, G. D. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 306 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 949 (1973).

1968

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 47, 1801 (1968).

1966

I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, Appl. Opt. 5, 73 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 748 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, unpublished.

Boyd, G. D.

T. P. Sosnowski, G. D. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 306 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, unpublished.

Cross, P. S.

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Divino, M. D.

See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Egashira, K.

See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, Appl. Opt. 5, 73 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

See, for example, H. Kogelnik, in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1975).

Koyama, J.

M. Masuda, J. Koyama, Appl Opt. 16, 2994 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuda, M.

M. Masuda, J. Koyama, Appl Opt. 16, 2994 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 47, 1801 (1968).

Ramaswamy, V.

See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ranganath, T. R.

T. R. Ranganath, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 376 (1977);B. Chen, A. C. Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 570 (1977);J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sosnowski, T. P.

T. P. Sosnowski, G. D. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 306 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Standley, R. D.

See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Terui, H.

See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Turner, E. H.

I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, Appl. Opt. 5, 73 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

T. R. Ranganath, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 376 (1977);B. Chen, A. C. Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 570 (1977);J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 949 (1973).

Appl Opt.

M. Masuda, J. Koyama, Appl Opt. 16, 2994 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner, Appl. Opt. 5, 73 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

See for example, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Divino, R. D. Standley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 644 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Ranganath, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 376 (1977);B. Chen, A. C. Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 570 (1977);J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 748 (1979).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, K. Egashira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 47, 1801 (1968).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 949 (1973).

T. P. Sosnowski, G. D. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 306 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, unpublished.

See, for example, H. Kogelnik, in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1975).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic drawing and (b) photomicrograph of electro-optic waveguide TE ↔ TM mode converter with periodic interdigital electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured phase-matched (λ = λ0 ∼ 0.6 μm) TE → TM conversion efficiency versus drive voltage and (b) measured wavelength response for fixed voltage (V ∼2.5 V) for electrode length of 6 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured mode-conversion filter bandwidth versus electrode length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured TE → TM conversion efficiency filter response for three independently controlled mode converters with periods λ = 7, 7.12, and 7.24 μm placed along a single waveguide and (b) photograph of the device.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

κ = α π λ n s 3 r 51 V d ,
2 π λ 0 | N TE N TM | = 2 π Λ

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