Abstract

A new class of radiation concentrators is described that achieve maximal concentration of radiation from a uniform source. Unlike ideal concentrators, which accept all radiation within a given acceptance angle and none outside, the new maximal concentration collectors may reject some radiation from within the nominal acceptance angle. However, the new concentrators offer small mirror or refractor area, high practical concentration levels (unlike ideal designs, which must be truncated), and an adaptable concentration response versus radiation incident angle. The new concentrators are exceptionally well suited to solar-energy applications and should also prove useful for radiation detection or distribution.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Winston, H. Hinterberger, “Principles of cylindrical concentrators for solar energy”, Sol. Energy 17, 255–258 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Winston, “Ideal flux concentrators with reflector gaps”, Appl. Opt. 17, 1668–1689 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. R. Mills, J. E. Giutronich, “Symmetrical and asymmetrical ideal cylindrical radiation transformers and concentrators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 325–328 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Mills, “The place of extreme asymmetrical concentrators in solar energy utilization”, Sol. Energy 21, 431–434 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. H. Welford, R. Winston, “The optics of non-imaging concentrators,” in Light and Solar Energy (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 17.
  6. Ref. 5, pp. 134–135.
  7. H. Tabor, “Stationary mirror systems for solar collectors”, Sol. Energy 2, 27–33 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. R. Mills, “New tilting concentrators which are economic at today’s prices,” submitted to Sol. Energy.
  9. D. R. Mills, E. Harting, J. E. Giutronich. “Principles of maximally concentrating two-stage concentrators for solar energy,” in preparation.
  10. Ref. 5, p. 85.

1979

1978

D. R. Mills, “The place of extreme asymmetrical concentrators in solar energy utilization”, Sol. Energy 21, 431–434 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Winston, “Ideal flux concentrators with reflector gaps”, Appl. Opt. 17, 1668–1689 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

R. Winston, H. Hinterberger, “Principles of cylindrical concentrators for solar energy”, Sol. Energy 17, 255–258 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1958

H. Tabor, “Stationary mirror systems for solar collectors”, Sol. Energy 2, 27–33 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Giutronich, J. E.

D. R. Mills, J. E. Giutronich, “Symmetrical and asymmetrical ideal cylindrical radiation transformers and concentrators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 325–328 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Mills, E. Harting, J. E. Giutronich. “Principles of maximally concentrating two-stage concentrators for solar energy,” in preparation.

Harting, E.

D. R. Mills, E. Harting, J. E. Giutronich. “Principles of maximally concentrating two-stage concentrators for solar energy,” in preparation.

Hinterberger, H.

R. Winston, H. Hinterberger, “Principles of cylindrical concentrators for solar energy”, Sol. Energy 17, 255–258 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mills, D. R.

D. R. Mills, J. E. Giutronich, “Symmetrical and asymmetrical ideal cylindrical radiation transformers and concentrators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 325–328 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Mills, “The place of extreme asymmetrical concentrators in solar energy utilization”, Sol. Energy 21, 431–434 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Mills, “New tilting concentrators which are economic at today’s prices,” submitted to Sol. Energy.

D. R. Mills, E. Harting, J. E. Giutronich. “Principles of maximally concentrating two-stage concentrators for solar energy,” in preparation.

Tabor, H.

H. Tabor, “Stationary mirror systems for solar collectors”, Sol. Energy 2, 27–33 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Welford, W. H.

W. H. Welford, R. Winston, “The optics of non-imaging concentrators,” in Light and Solar Energy (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 17.

Winston, R.

R. Winston, “Ideal flux concentrators with reflector gaps”, Appl. Opt. 17, 1668–1689 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Winston, H. Hinterberger, “Principles of cylindrical concentrators for solar energy”, Sol. Energy 17, 255–258 (1975).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Welford, R. Winston, “The optics of non-imaging concentrators,” in Light and Solar Energy (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 17.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Sol. Energy

D. R. Mills, “The place of extreme asymmetrical concentrators in solar energy utilization”, Sol. Energy 21, 431–434 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Tabor, “Stationary mirror systems for solar collectors”, Sol. Energy 2, 27–33 (1958).
[CrossRef]

R. Winston, H. Hinterberger, “Principles of cylindrical concentrators for solar energy”, Sol. Energy 17, 255–258 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. R. Mills, “New tilting concentrators which are economic at today’s prices,” submitted to Sol. Energy.

D. R. Mills, E. Harting, J. E. Giutronich. “Principles of maximally concentrating two-stage concentrators for solar energy,” in preparation.

Ref. 5, p. 85.

W. H. Welford, R. Winston, “The optics of non-imaging concentrators,” in Light and Solar Energy (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 17.

Ref. 5, pp. 134–135.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of an ideal two-stage concentrator. The reflected θmax at point A more than covers CD, the secondary concentrator aperture. This is true for all the primary mirror AB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three possible ideal concentration characteristics for a maximal nonrefractive concentrator of θmax = 12.5°. All three have the same area under the curve, equal to that of Xavg shown. Many more characteristics are possible for a given receiver and θmax.

Equations (5)

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B θ 1 θ 2 f ( θ ) A 1 cos θ d θ = B - π / 2 π / 2 A 2 cos θ d θ = 2 B A 2 ,
A 1 A 2 = 2 / 0 1 0 2 f ( θ ) cos θ d θ .
X avg = 1 t t A 1 A 2 f [ θ ( t ) ] cos θ ( t ) d t = A 1 A 2 θ max 0 1 0 2 f ( θ ) cos θ d θ ,
X avg = 2 / θ max ,
X avg = n 2 n 1 sin θ 2 - sin θ 1 θ max ,

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