Abstract

A fiber-optic hydrophone based on an intensity-modulation mechanism is described. The device possesses sufficient sensitivity to detect typical deep-sea noise levels in the frequency range 100 Hz to 1 kHz and to detect static displacements of 8.3 × 10−3 Å. It is not susceptible to phase noise and is insensitive to static-pressure head variations. The hydrophone is passive in nature and requires no electrical power. Ease of fabrication and potential low cost make this device an attractive candidate for incorporation into practical fiber-optic acoustic sensing arrays.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. F. Carome, M. P. Satyshur, ONR Tech. Rep. #PH 78-2 (1978).
  4. B. Culshaw, Annu. Rev. Dept. Electron. Elect. Eng.University CollegeLond.22 (1978).
  5. G. B. Hocker, Appl. Opt. 18, 1445 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. Bucaro, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 330 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Shajenko, U.S. Patent4,115,753.
  8. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston), New York, 1971.
  9. J. N. Fields, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.
  10. R. J. Urick, Principles of Underwater Sound for Engineers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967).

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

1977 (2)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bucaro, J. A.

J. A. Bucaro, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 330 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Carome, E. F.

J. A. Bucaro, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 330 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Carome, M. P. Satyshur, ONR Tech. Rep. #PH 78-2 (1978).

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, Annu. Rev. Dept. Electron. Elect. Eng.University CollegeLond.22 (1978).

Dardy, H. D.

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fields, J. N.

J. N. Fields, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.

Hocker, G. B.

Satyshur, M. P.

E. F. Carome, M. P. Satyshur, ONR Tech. Rep. #PH 78-2 (1978).

Shajenko, P.

P. Shajenko, U.S. Patent4,115,753.

Urick, R. J.

R. J. Urick, Principles of Underwater Sound for Engineers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston), New York, 1971.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

E. F. Carome, M. P. Satyshur, ONR Tech. Rep. #PH 78-2 (1978).

B. Culshaw, Annu. Rev. Dept. Electron. Elect. Eng.University CollegeLond.22 (1978).

P. Shajenko, U.S. Patent4,115,753.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston), New York, 1971.

J. N. Fields, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.

R. J. Urick, Principles of Underwater Sound for Engineers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Moving-fiber optical hydrophone: (a) device configuration, (b) experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative intensity versus vertical fiber displacement in micrometers for moving-fiber hydrophone using 4.5 μm-core single-mode fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Minimum detectable pressure (SNR = 1) for moving-fiber hydrophone at 1-Hz bandwidth and 40 μW of optical power using 4.5-μm core single-mode fiber.

Equations (1)

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R = I - 1 Δ I Δ x ,

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