Abstract

Refinements in the instrumentation of a diode-laser heterodyne spectrometer permit the rapid and routine measurement of infrared absorptions lying within 6.5 GHz of a CO2 laser emission to a precision and accuracy well within 10 MHz. Measurements on 1,1-difluoroethylene, which is used in optically pumped submillimeter-wave lasers, illustrate the technique.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. L. Worchesky, K. J. Ritter, J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, “Heterodyne measurements of infrared absorption frequencies of D2O”, Opt. Lett. 2, 70–71 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Duxbury, H. Herman, “The 10.4 μm CO2 laser Stark spectra of the ν4 and the ν9 bands of 1,1-difluoroethylene,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 73, 444–461 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, A. G. Maki, “Heterodyne frequency measurements with a tunable diode laser–CO2 laser spectrometer: spectroscopic reference frequencies in the 9.5 μm band of carbonyl sulfide”, Appl. Opt.18 (in press).
    [PubMed]
  4. J. J. Hillman, D. E. Jennings, J. L. Faris, “Diode laser–CO2 laser heterodyne spectrometer: measurement of 2sQ(1,1) in 2ν2–ν2 of NH3”, Appl. Opt. 18, 1808–1811 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, T. L. Worchesky, “Diode laser spectra of the C—O stretch band of gaseous methyl alcohol”, Infrared Phys. 19, 217–224 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Brockman, C. H. Blair, F. Allario, “High-resolution spectral measurements of the HNO3 11.3-μm band using tunable diode lasers”, Appl. Opt. 17, 91–100 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955).
  8. J. K. G. Watson, “Aspects of quartic and sextic centrifugal effects on rotational energy levels,” in Vibrational Spectra and Structure, J. R. Durig, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977) Vol. 6, pp. 1–80.
  9. G. Duxbury, H. Herman, “Assignment of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines in 1,1-difluoroethylene”, Infrared Phys. 18, 461–463 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. P. Koo, P. C. Claspy, “Absorption measurements of 1,1-difluoroethylene (C2H2F2) at 10.6-μm wavelength”, Appl. Opt. 16, 15–16 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, B. L. Danielson, “Accurate rotational constants, frequencies, and wavelengths from 12C16O2 lasers stabilized by saturated absorption,” in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds., Proceedings of an international conference on laser spectroscopy, Vail, Colorado, June 25–29, 1973 (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 555–569.

1979

J. J. Hillman, D. E. Jennings, J. L. Faris, “Diode laser–CO2 laser heterodyne spectrometer: measurement of 2sQ(1,1) in 2ν2–ν2 of NH3”, Appl. Opt. 18, 1808–1811 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, T. L. Worchesky, “Diode laser spectra of the C—O stretch band of gaseous methyl alcohol”, Infrared Phys. 19, 217–224 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

P. Brockman, C. H. Blair, F. Allario, “High-resolution spectral measurements of the HNO3 11.3-μm band using tunable diode lasers”, Appl. Opt. 17, 91–100 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duxbury, H. Herman, “Assignment of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines in 1,1-difluoroethylene”, Infrared Phys. 18, 461–463 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Worchesky, K. J. Ritter, J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, “Heterodyne measurements of infrared absorption frequencies of D2O”, Opt. Lett. 2, 70–71 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duxbury, H. Herman, “The 10.4 μm CO2 laser Stark spectra of the ν4 and the ν9 bands of 1,1-difluoroethylene,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 73, 444–461 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

Allario, F.

Blair, C. H.

Brockman, P.

Claspy, P. C.

Cupp, J. D.

F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, B. L. Danielson, “Accurate rotational constants, frequencies, and wavelengths from 12C16O2 lasers stabilized by saturated absorption,” in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds., Proceedings of an international conference on laser spectroscopy, Vail, Colorado, June 25–29, 1973 (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 555–569.

Danielson, B. L.

F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, B. L. Danielson, “Accurate rotational constants, frequencies, and wavelengths from 12C16O2 lasers stabilized by saturated absorption,” in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds., Proceedings of an international conference on laser spectroscopy, Vail, Colorado, June 25–29, 1973 (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 555–569.

Duxbury, G.

G. Duxbury, H. Herman, “Assignment of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines in 1,1-difluoroethylene”, Infrared Phys. 18, 461–463 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Duxbury, H. Herman, “The 10.4 μm CO2 laser Stark spectra of the ν4 and the ν9 bands of 1,1-difluoroethylene,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 73, 444–461 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Faris, J. L.

Herman, H.

G. Duxbury, H. Herman, “The 10.4 μm CO2 laser Stark spectra of the ν4 and the ν9 bands of 1,1-difluoroethylene,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 73, 444–461 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Duxbury, H. Herman, “Assignment of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines in 1,1-difluoroethylene”, Infrared Phys. 18, 461–463 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, J. J.

Jennings, D. E.

Koo, K. P.

Maki, A. G.

J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, A. G. Maki, “Heterodyne frequency measurements with a tunable diode laser–CO2 laser spectrometer: spectroscopic reference frequencies in the 9.5 μm band of carbonyl sulfide”, Appl. Opt.18 (in press).
[PubMed]

McDonald, D. G.

F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, B. L. Danielson, “Accurate rotational constants, frequencies, and wavelengths from 12C16O2 lasers stabilized by saturated absorption,” in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds., Proceedings of an international conference on laser spectroscopy, Vail, Colorado, June 25–29, 1973 (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 555–569.

Petersen, F. R.

F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, B. L. Danielson, “Accurate rotational constants, frequencies, and wavelengths from 12C16O2 lasers stabilized by saturated absorption,” in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds., Proceedings of an international conference on laser spectroscopy, Vail, Colorado, June 25–29, 1973 (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 555–569.

J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, A. G. Maki, “Heterodyne frequency measurements with a tunable diode laser–CO2 laser spectrometer: spectroscopic reference frequencies in the 9.5 μm band of carbonyl sulfide”, Appl. Opt.18 (in press).
[PubMed]

Riessler, W. A.

J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, T. L. Worchesky, “Diode laser spectra of the C—O stretch band of gaseous methyl alcohol”, Infrared Phys. 19, 217–224 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Worchesky, K. J. Ritter, J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, “Heterodyne measurements of infrared absorption frequencies of D2O”, Opt. Lett. 2, 70–71 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritter, K. J.

Sattler, J. P.

J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, T. L. Worchesky, “Diode laser spectra of the C—O stretch band of gaseous methyl alcohol”, Infrared Phys. 19, 217–224 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Worchesky, K. J. Ritter, J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, “Heterodyne measurements of infrared absorption frequencies of D2O”, Opt. Lett. 2, 70–71 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schawlow, A. L.

C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955).

Townes, C. H.

C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955).

Watson, J. K. G.

J. K. G. Watson, “Aspects of quartic and sextic centrifugal effects on rotational energy levels,” in Vibrational Spectra and Structure, J. R. Durig, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977) Vol. 6, pp. 1–80.

Wells, J. S.

J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, A. G. Maki, “Heterodyne frequency measurements with a tunable diode laser–CO2 laser spectrometer: spectroscopic reference frequencies in the 9.5 μm band of carbonyl sulfide”, Appl. Opt.18 (in press).
[PubMed]

Worchesky, T. L.

J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, T. L. Worchesky, “Diode laser spectra of the C—O stretch band of gaseous methyl alcohol”, Infrared Phys. 19, 217–224 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Worchesky, K. J. Ritter, J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, “Heterodyne measurements of infrared absorption frequencies of D2O”, Opt. Lett. 2, 70–71 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Infrared Phys.

G. Duxbury, H. Herman, “Assignment of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines in 1,1-difluoroethylene”, Infrared Phys. 18, 461–463 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Sattler, W. A. Riessler, T. L. Worchesky, “Diode laser spectra of the C—O stretch band of gaseous methyl alcohol”, Infrared Phys. 19, 217–224 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

G. Duxbury, H. Herman, “The 10.4 μm CO2 laser Stark spectra of the ν4 and the ν9 bands of 1,1-difluoroethylene,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 73, 444–461 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955).

J. K. G. Watson, “Aspects of quartic and sextic centrifugal effects on rotational energy levels,” in Vibrational Spectra and Structure, J. R. Durig, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977) Vol. 6, pp. 1–80.

J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, A. G. Maki, “Heterodyne frequency measurements with a tunable diode laser–CO2 laser spectrometer: spectroscopic reference frequencies in the 9.5 μm band of carbonyl sulfide”, Appl. Opt.18 (in press).
[PubMed]

F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, B. L. Danielson, “Accurate rotational constants, frequencies, and wavelengths from 12C16O2 lasers stabilized by saturated absorption,” in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds., Proceedings of an international conference on laser spectroscopy, Vail, Colorado, June 25–29, 1973 (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 555–569.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of diode-laser heterodyne spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of F2C=CH2 in region of 10P(22) CO2 laser line (upper), and marker pips at ±4500 MHz (lower). The IR frequency increases toward the right. The assignments for the numbered spectral lines are given in Table 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Assignments and Frequencies of F2C=CH2

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