Abstract

A technique is proposed for using the properties of the autoionizing levels of neutral Li to construct a 207-Å laser. Energy is first stored in the lowest quartet level at 57.4 eV and then, by use of an intense laser beam, rapidly transferred to a radiating level in the doublet series.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Mahr, U. Roeder, “Use of metastable ions for a soft x-ray laser”, Opt. Commun. 10, 227 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser”, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. J. McGuire, “The L-MM auger spectra of Na and Mg”, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1402 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. J. McGuire, M. A. Duguay, “Soft x-ray gain in the alkali earths”, Appl. Opt. 16, 83 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. K. Rhodes, R. M. Hill, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, “Laser excitation of innershell atomic states by multiquantum processes,” unpublished (1977).
  6. P. Feldman, R. Novick, “Autoionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 278 (1963); “Auto-ionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes”, Phys. Rev. 160, 160 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Levitt, R. Novick, P. D. Feldman, “Determination of energies and lifetimes of the metastable auto-ionizing (1s2s2p)4P states of Li6 and Li7 by a Zeeman-quenching technique”, Phys. Rev. A 3, 130 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. G. Berry, “Multiply-excited states in beam-foil spectroscopy”, Phys. Scr. 12, 5 (1975); H. G. Berry, E. H. Pinnington, J. L. Subtil, “Energies and mean lives of doubly excited terms in lithium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 767 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. F. Bunge, A. V. Bunge, “Absolute term values for the quartet states of neutral lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 17, 816 (1978); “Configuration-interaction studies of transition energies and oscillator strengths for the lowest quartet states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 822 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. W. F. Drake, A. Dalgarno, “Intercombination oscillator strengths in the helium sequence”, Astrophys. J. 157, 459 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Buchet, M. C. Buchet-Poulizac, H. G. Berry, “Classifications of some transitions in doubly excited Li I and Li II”, Phys. Rev. A 7, 922 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. J. McIlrath, T. B. Lucatorto, “Laser excitation and ionization in a dense Li vapor: observation of the even-parity, core-excited autoionizing states”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1390 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Rassi, V. Pejcev, K. J. Ross, “The ejected-electron spectrum of Li I autoionizing levels excited by low-energy electron impact on lithium vapour,” J. Phys. B 10, 3535 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Ziem, R. Bruch, N. Stolterfoht, “Autoionization spectra of Li I and Li II excited by H+ and He+ impact,” J. Phys. B 8, L480 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Aymar, E. Luc-Koenig, F. Combet Farnoux, “Theoretical investigation on photoionization from Rydberg states of lithium, sodium, and potassium,” J. Phys. B 9, 1279 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. Ederer, T. Lucatorto, R. P. Madden, “Autoionization spectra of lithium”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1537 (1970);, “Resonances in the photoionization continuum of lithium I (55 to 70 eV),” J. Phys. Paris C4, 85 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Herzberg, H. R. Moore, “The spectrum of Li+”, Can. J. Phys. 37, 1293 (1959).
    [CrossRef]

1978

C. F. Bunge, A. V. Bunge, “Absolute term values for the quartet states of neutral lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 17, 816 (1978); “Configuration-interaction studies of transition energies and oscillator strengths for the lowest quartet states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 822 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

E. J. McGuire, M. A. Duguay, “Soft x-ray gain in the alkali earths”, Appl. Opt. 16, 83 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. McIlrath, T. B. Lucatorto, “Laser excitation and ionization in a dense Li vapor: observation of the even-parity, core-excited autoionizing states”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1390 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Rassi, V. Pejcev, K. J. Ross, “The ejected-electron spectrum of Li I autoionizing levels excited by low-energy electron impact on lithium vapour,” J. Phys. B 10, 3535 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

M. Aymar, E. Luc-Koenig, F. Combet Farnoux, “Theoretical investigation on photoionization from Rydberg states of lithium, sodium, and potassium,” J. Phys. B 9, 1279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser”, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. J. McGuire, “The L-MM auger spectra of Na and Mg”, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1402 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

P. Ziem, R. Bruch, N. Stolterfoht, “Autoionization spectra of Li I and Li II excited by H+ and He+ impact,” J. Phys. B 8, L480 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Berry, “Multiply-excited states in beam-foil spectroscopy”, Phys. Scr. 12, 5 (1975); H. G. Berry, E. H. Pinnington, J. L. Subtil, “Energies and mean lives of doubly excited terms in lithium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 767 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1974

H. Mahr, U. Roeder, “Use of metastable ions for a soft x-ray laser”, Opt. Commun. 10, 227 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

J. P. Buchet, M. C. Buchet-Poulizac, H. G. Berry, “Classifications of some transitions in doubly excited Li I and Li II”, Phys. Rev. A 7, 922 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971

M. Levitt, R. Novick, P. D. Feldman, “Determination of energies and lifetimes of the metastable auto-ionizing (1s2s2p)4P states of Li6 and Li7 by a Zeeman-quenching technique”, Phys. Rev. A 3, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

D. L. Ederer, T. Lucatorto, R. P. Madden, “Autoionization spectra of lithium”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1537 (1970);, “Resonances in the photoionization continuum of lithium I (55 to 70 eV),” J. Phys. Paris C4, 85 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

G. W. F. Drake, A. Dalgarno, “Intercombination oscillator strengths in the helium sequence”, Astrophys. J. 157, 459 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1963

P. Feldman, R. Novick, “Autoionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 278 (1963); “Auto-ionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes”, Phys. Rev. 160, 160 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1959

G. Herzberg, H. R. Moore, “The spectrum of Li+”, Can. J. Phys. 37, 1293 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Aymar, M.

M. Aymar, E. Luc-Koenig, F. Combet Farnoux, “Theoretical investigation on photoionization from Rydberg states of lithium, sodium, and potassium,” J. Phys. B 9, 1279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Berry, H. G.

H. G. Berry, “Multiply-excited states in beam-foil spectroscopy”, Phys. Scr. 12, 5 (1975); H. G. Berry, E. H. Pinnington, J. L. Subtil, “Energies and mean lives of doubly excited terms in lithium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 767 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Buchet, M. C. Buchet-Poulizac, H. G. Berry, “Classifications of some transitions in doubly excited Li I and Li II”, Phys. Rev. A 7, 922 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bruch, R.

P. Ziem, R. Bruch, N. Stolterfoht, “Autoionization spectra of Li I and Li II excited by H+ and He+ impact,” J. Phys. B 8, L480 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Buchet, J. P.

J. P. Buchet, M. C. Buchet-Poulizac, H. G. Berry, “Classifications of some transitions in doubly excited Li I and Li II”, Phys. Rev. A 7, 922 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Buchet-Poulizac, M. C.

J. P. Buchet, M. C. Buchet-Poulizac, H. G. Berry, “Classifications of some transitions in doubly excited Li I and Li II”, Phys. Rev. A 7, 922 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bunge, A. V.

C. F. Bunge, A. V. Bunge, “Absolute term values for the quartet states of neutral lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 17, 816 (1978); “Configuration-interaction studies of transition energies and oscillator strengths for the lowest quartet states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 822 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bunge, C. F.

C. F. Bunge, A. V. Bunge, “Absolute term values for the quartet states of neutral lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 17, 816 (1978); “Configuration-interaction studies of transition energies and oscillator strengths for the lowest quartet states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 822 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Combet Farnoux, F.

M. Aymar, E. Luc-Koenig, F. Combet Farnoux, “Theoretical investigation on photoionization from Rydberg states of lithium, sodium, and potassium,” J. Phys. B 9, 1279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dalgarno, A.

G. W. F. Drake, A. Dalgarno, “Intercombination oscillator strengths in the helium sequence”, Astrophys. J. 157, 459 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Daugherty, J. D.

S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser”, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Drake, G. W. F.

G. W. F. Drake, A. Dalgarno, “Intercombination oscillator strengths in the helium sequence”, Astrophys. J. 157, 459 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

Ederer, D. L.

D. L. Ederer, T. Lucatorto, R. P. Madden, “Autoionization spectra of lithium”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1537 (1970);, “Resonances in the photoionization continuum of lithium I (55 to 70 eV),” J. Phys. Paris C4, 85 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, P.

P. Feldman, R. Novick, “Autoionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 278 (1963); “Auto-ionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes”, Phys. Rev. 160, 160 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, P. D.

M. Levitt, R. Novick, P. D. Feldman, “Determination of energies and lifetimes of the metastable auto-ionizing (1s2s2p)4P states of Li6 and Li7 by a Zeeman-quenching technique”, Phys. Rev. A 3, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, H. R. Moore, “The spectrum of Li+”, Can. J. Phys. 37, 1293 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. M.

C. K. Rhodes, R. M. Hill, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, “Laser excitation of innershell atomic states by multiquantum processes,” unpublished (1977).

Hyman, H. A.

S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser”, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Levitt, M.

M. Levitt, R. Novick, P. D. Feldman, “Determination of energies and lifetimes of the metastable auto-ionizing (1s2s2p)4P states of Li6 and Li7 by a Zeeman-quenching technique”, Phys. Rev. A 3, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lucatorto, T.

D. L. Ederer, T. Lucatorto, R. P. Madden, “Autoionization spectra of lithium”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1537 (1970);, “Resonances in the photoionization continuum of lithium I (55 to 70 eV),” J. Phys. Paris C4, 85 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lucatorto, T. B.

T. J. McIlrath, T. B. Lucatorto, “Laser excitation and ionization in a dense Li vapor: observation of the even-parity, core-excited autoionizing states”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1390 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Luc-Koenig, E.

M. Aymar, E. Luc-Koenig, F. Combet Farnoux, “Theoretical investigation on photoionization from Rydberg states of lithium, sodium, and potassium,” J. Phys. B 9, 1279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Madden, R. P.

D. L. Ederer, T. Lucatorto, R. P. Madden, “Autoionization spectra of lithium”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1537 (1970);, “Resonances in the photoionization continuum of lithium I (55 to 70 eV),” J. Phys. Paris C4, 85 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Mahr, H.

H. Mahr, U. Roeder, “Use of metastable ions for a soft x-ray laser”, Opt. Commun. 10, 227 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mani, S. A.

S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser”, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, E. J.

E. J. McGuire, M. A. Duguay, “Soft x-ray gain in the alkali earths”, Appl. Opt. 16, 83 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. McGuire, “The L-MM auger spectra of Na and Mg”, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1402 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McIlrath, T. J.

T. J. McIlrath, T. B. Lucatorto, “Laser excitation and ionization in a dense Li vapor: observation of the even-parity, core-excited autoionizing states”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1390 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Moore, H. R.

G. Herzberg, H. R. Moore, “The spectrum of Li+”, Can. J. Phys. 37, 1293 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Novick, R.

M. Levitt, R. Novick, P. D. Feldman, “Determination of energies and lifetimes of the metastable auto-ionizing (1s2s2p)4P states of Li6 and Li7 by a Zeeman-quenching technique”, Phys. Rev. A 3, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. Feldman, R. Novick, “Autoionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 278 (1963); “Auto-ionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes”, Phys. Rev. 160, 160 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Pejcev, V.

D. Rassi, V. Pejcev, K. J. Ross, “The ejected-electron spectrum of Li I autoionizing levels excited by low-energy electron impact on lithium vapour,” J. Phys. B 10, 3535 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rassi, D.

D. Rassi, V. Pejcev, K. J. Ross, “The ejected-electron spectrum of Li I autoionizing levels excited by low-energy electron impact on lithium vapour,” J. Phys. B 10, 3535 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, C. K.

C. K. Rhodes, R. M. Hill, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, “Laser excitation of innershell atomic states by multiquantum processes,” unpublished (1977).

Roeder, U.

H. Mahr, U. Roeder, “Use of metastable ions for a soft x-ray laser”, Opt. Commun. 10, 227 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ross, K. J.

D. Rassi, V. Pejcev, K. J. Ross, “The ejected-electron spectrum of Li I autoionizing levels excited by low-energy electron impact on lithium vapour,” J. Phys. B 10, 3535 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Stolterfoht, N.

P. Ziem, R. Bruch, N. Stolterfoht, “Autoionization spectra of Li I and Li II excited by H+ and He+ impact,” J. Phys. B 8, L480 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ziem, P.

P. Ziem, R. Bruch, N. Stolterfoht, “Autoionization spectra of Li I and Li II excited by H+ and He+ impact,” J. Phys. B 8, L480 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

G. W. F. Drake, A. Dalgarno, “Intercombination oscillator strengths in the helium sequence”, Astrophys. J. 157, 459 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

G. Herzberg, H. R. Moore, “The spectrum of Li+”, Can. J. Phys. 37, 1293 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser”, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

D. Rassi, V. Pejcev, K. J. Ross, “The ejected-electron spectrum of Li I autoionizing levels excited by low-energy electron impact on lithium vapour,” J. Phys. B 10, 3535 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Ziem, R. Bruch, N. Stolterfoht, “Autoionization spectra of Li I and Li II excited by H+ and He+ impact,” J. Phys. B 8, L480 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, E. Luc-Koenig, F. Combet Farnoux, “Theoretical investigation on photoionization from Rydberg states of lithium, sodium, and potassium,” J. Phys. B 9, 1279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. Mahr, U. Roeder, “Use of metastable ions for a soft x-ray laser”, Opt. Commun. 10, 227 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

M. Levitt, R. Novick, P. D. Feldman, “Determination of energies and lifetimes of the metastable auto-ionizing (1s2s2p)4P states of Li6 and Li7 by a Zeeman-quenching technique”, Phys. Rev. A 3, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. J. McGuire, “The L-MM auger spectra of Na and Mg”, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1402 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Bunge, A. V. Bunge, “Absolute term values for the quartet states of neutral lithium”, Phys. Rev. A 17, 816 (1978); “Configuration-interaction studies of transition energies and oscillator strengths for the lowest quartet states of neutral lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 822 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Buchet, M. C. Buchet-Poulizac, H. G. Berry, “Classifications of some transitions in doubly excited Li I and Li II”, Phys. Rev. A 7, 922 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. J. McIlrath, T. B. Lucatorto, “Laser excitation and ionization in a dense Li vapor: observation of the even-parity, core-excited autoionizing states”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1390 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Ederer, T. Lucatorto, R. P. Madden, “Autoionization spectra of lithium”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1537 (1970);, “Resonances in the photoionization continuum of lithium I (55 to 70 eV),” J. Phys. Paris C4, 85 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. Feldman, R. Novick, “Autoionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 278 (1963); “Auto-ionizing states in the alkali atoms with microsecond lifetimes”, Phys. Rev. 160, 160 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

H. G. Berry, “Multiply-excited states in beam-foil spectroscopy”, Phys. Scr. 12, 5 (1975); H. G. Berry, E. H. Pinnington, J. L. Subtil, “Energies and mean lives of doubly excited terms in lithium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 767 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. K. Rhodes, R. M. Hill, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, “Laser excitation of innershell atomic states by multiquantum processes,” unpublished (1977).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram for the proposed 207-Å laser in neutral Li.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration and spin of the pertinent levels.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Parameters

Equations (1)

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Gain = ( 9.7 × 10 - 25 ) N ( atoms / cm 3 ) P A ( W / cm 2 ) cm - 1 .

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