Abstract

Manipulation of spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) has recently intrigued enormous interest due to the capability of guiding waves with subwavelength footsteps. However, most of the previous studies, manifested for a single functionality, are not suitable for multifunctional integrated devices. Herein, a bifunctional Luneburg–fish-eye lens is proposed based on a 2D metal pillar array. First, by tuning the dimension of the metal pillars in the array, its ability to precisely manipulate the SSPs along one direction is confirmed, achieving subwavelength focusing and imaging with a resolution up to ${0.14}\lambda$. Then, separately controlling the propagation of the SSPs along the orthotropic directions is further implemented, and the bifunctional Luneburg–fish-eye lens is realized. It is experimentally characterized as a Luneburg lens along the $ x $ axis, whereas in the $ y $ axis, it presents the properties of a Maxwell fish-eye lens. This bifunctional lens can reduce the system complexity and exert flexibility in multifunctional applications, while the proposed metal pillar-based design method broadens the application range of the gradient refractive-index lens in microwave, terahertz, and even optical ranges.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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