Abstract

Collecting significant and measurable signals from the typically omnidirectional emission of nanoscale emitters is challenging. To improve the collection efficiency, it is essential to deterministically place the emitters in desired locations and design mode converters to match the modes of emission to those of the collection system. In this Letter, we propose the deterministic placement of nanoscale emitters using a pick-and-place technique called polymer-pen lithography. We demonstrate the concept with upconversion nanoparticles placed deterministically at the focus of three-dimensional-printed ellipsoidal micro-lenses. A significant part of the forward-going emission is collimated leading to increased collection efficiency, even at low numerical apertures of the collecting optics. The proposed approach lends itself to hybrid integration for fiber-to-chip and on-chip applications.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
Supplement 1       This document details information about the FDTD simulations, chemical sysnthesis of upconversion nanoparticles and the direct laser writing process.

Data Availability

Data underlying the results presented in this Letter are available in Supplement 1.

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