Abstract

We show that a linear quadrupole response from a crystalline material to externally applied optical fields exists and has gone unnoticed, even though its nonlinear optical cousin has been studied and explored extensively for decades. Such a linear quadrupole response reveals the symmetry of the crystal, just as its nonlinear optical counterpart has done, and can be used to investigate phase transitions non-intrusively with high spatial and temporal resolution.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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