Abstract

In this Letter, an enhanced laser speckle optical sensor (LSOS) for nondestructive, noncontact, and high-accuracy strain measurement has been developed. Subsystems of laser beam shaping and telecentric imaging were incorporated into the LSOS to achieve optimized speckle patterns, and a field-of-view (FOV) separation was introduced to extend sensor gauge length. Validation tests confirmed that the LSOS achieved consistent results with resistive strain gauges in laboratory conditions with maximum RMS error (RMSE) of $ 9.44\;\unicode{x00B5} \unicode{x03B5} $. Sensing practicality was demonstrated in field tests. The results showed that the LSOS is capable of achieving accurate strain measurements in an external environment with maximum RMSE of $ 13.34\;\unicode{x00B5}\unicode{x03B5} $.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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References

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Y. Dong and B. Pan, Exp. Mech. 57, 1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

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[Crossref]

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F. Zhu, P. Bai, Y. Gong, D. Lei, and X. He, Measurement 119, 18 (2018).
[Crossref]

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S. Baker and I. Matthews, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 56, 221 (2004).
[Crossref]

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L. J. Butler, J. Xu, P. He, N. Gibbons, S. Dirar, C. R. Middleton, and M. Z. Elshafie, Struct. Health Monit. 17, 635 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Z. Chen, C. Quan, F. Zhu, and X. He, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 095201 (2015).
[Crossref]

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G. Lionello and L. Cristofolini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 107001 (2014).
[Crossref]

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J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer, 2013), Vol. 9.

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J. R. Edwards, Z. Gao, H. E. Wolf, M. S. Dersch, and Y. Qian, Measurement 111, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dirar, S.

L. J. Butler, J. Xu, P. He, N. Gibbons, S. Dirar, C. R. Middleton, and M. Z. Elshafie, Struct. Health Monit. 17, 635 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dong, B.

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong and B. Pan, Exp. Mech. 57, 1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

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J. R. Edwards, Z. Gao, H. E. Wolf, M. S. Dersch, and Y. Qian, Measurement 111, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Elshafie, M. Z.

L. J. Butler, J. Xu, P. He, N. Gibbons, S. Dirar, C. R. Middleton, and M. Z. Elshafie, Struct. Health Monit. 17, 635 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, and S. Wu, Opt. Laser Eng. 114, 60 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gao, Z.

J. R. Edwards, Z. Gao, H. E. Wolf, M. S. Dersch, and Y. Qian, Measurement 111, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Xu, and Z. Gao, Opt. Laser Eng. 86, 132 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gibbons, N.

L. J. Butler, J. Xu, P. He, N. Gibbons, S. Dirar, C. R. Middleton, and M. Z. Elshafie, Struct. Health Monit. 17, 635 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gonçalves Jr., A. A.

Gong, Y.

F. Zhu, P. Bai, Y. Gong, D. Lei, and X. He, Measurement 119, 18 (2018).
[Crossref]

He, P.

L. J. Butler, J. Xu, P. He, N. Gibbons, S. Dirar, C. R. Middleton, and M. Z. Elshafie, Struct. Health Monit. 17, 635 (2018).
[Crossref]

He, X.

F. Zhu, P. Bai, Y. Gong, D. Lei, and X. He, Measurement 119, 18 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, C. Quan, F. Zhu, and X. He, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 095201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, F. Liu, W. Zhu, and J. Zhu, Mech. Mater. 121, 10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kapp, W. A.

Lei, D.

F. Zhu, P. Bai, Y. Gong, D. Lei, and X. He, Measurement 119, 18 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Lionello, G.

G. Lionello and L. Cristofolini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 107001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

Y. Hu, F. Liu, W. Zhu, and J. Zhu, Mech. Mater. 121, 10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, and S. Wu, Opt. Laser Eng. 114, 60 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Lu, C.

Matthews, I.

S. Baker and I. Matthews, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 56, 221 (2004).
[Crossref]

Middleton, C. R.

L. J. Butler, J. Xu, P. He, N. Gibbons, S. Dirar, C. R. Middleton, and M. Z. Elshafie, Struct. Health Monit. 17, 635 (2018).
[Crossref]

Orteu, J. J.

M. A. Sutton, J. J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements: Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications (Springer, 2009).

Pan, B.

B. Dong, C. Li, and B. Pan, Opt. Lett. 44, 4499 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Tian, L. Yu, and B. Pan, Opt. Laser Eng. 110, 272 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong and B. Pan, Exp. Mech. 57, 1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Pan, L. Yu, and D. Wu, Exp. Mech. 53, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Pan, H. Xie, Z. Wang, K. Qian, and Z. Wang, Opt. Express 16, 7037 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pracik, M.

J. Tabin and M. Prącik, Measurement 63, 176 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qian, K.

Qian, Y.

J. R. Edwards, Z. Gao, H. E. Wolf, M. S. Dersch, and Y. Qian, Measurement 111, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Quan, C.

Z. Chen, C. Quan, F. Zhu, and X. He, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 095201 (2015).
[Crossref]

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P. Rastogi, Digital Optical Measurement Techniques and Applications (Artech House, 2015).

Schreier, H.

M. A. Sutton, J. J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements: Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications (Springer, 2009).

Su, Y.

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, and S. Wu, Opt. Laser Eng. 114, 60 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Xu, and Z. Gao, Opt. Laser Eng. 86, 132 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sutton, M. A.

M. A. Sutton, J. J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements: Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications (Springer, 2009).

Tabin, J.

J. Tabin and M. Prącik, Measurement 63, 176 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tam, H.-Y.

Tian, L.

L. Tian, L. Yu, and B. Pan, Opt. Laser Eng. 110, 272 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Viotti, M. R.

Wang, Y.

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, and S. Wu, Opt. Laser Eng. 114, 60 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wolf, H. E.

J. R. Edwards, Z. Gao, H. E. Wolf, M. S. Dersch, and Y. Qian, Measurement 111, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

Wu, D.

B. Pan, L. Yu, and D. Wu, Exp. Mech. 53, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, and S. Wu, Opt. Laser Eng. 114, 60 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

Xu, J.

L. J. Butler, J. Xu, P. He, N. Gibbons, S. Dirar, C. R. Middleton, and M. Z. Elshafie, Struct. Health Monit. 17, 635 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Xu, and Z. Gao, Opt. Laser Eng. 86, 132 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, I.

I. Yamaguchi, J. Phys. E 14, 1270 (1981).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

L. Tian, L. Yu, and B. Pan, Opt. Laser Eng. 110, 272 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Pan, L. Yu, and D. Wu, Exp. Mech. 53, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, and S. Wu, Opt. Laser Eng. 114, 60 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Xu, and Z. Gao, Opt. Laser Eng. 86, 132 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, F.

F. Zhu, P. Bai, Y. Gong, D. Lei, and X. He, Measurement 119, 18 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, C. Quan, F. Zhu, and X. He, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 095201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

Y. Hu, F. Liu, W. Zhu, and J. Zhu, Mech. Mater. 121, 10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

Y. Hu, F. Liu, W. Zhu, and J. Zhu, Mech. Mater. 121, 10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Exp. Mech. (2)

B. Pan, L. Yu, and D. Wu, Exp. Mech. 53, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong and B. Pan, Exp. Mech. 57, 1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

S. Baker and I. Matthews, Int. J. Comput. Vis. 56, 221 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. E (1)

I. Yamaguchi, J. Phys. E 14, 1270 (1981).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

G. Lionello and L. Cristofolini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 107001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, C. Quan, F. Zhu, and X. He, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 095201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Measurement (3)

J. Tabin and M. Prącik, Measurement 63, 176 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. R. Edwards, Z. Gao, H. E. Wolf, M. S. Dersch, and Y. Qian, Measurement 111, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zhu, P. Bai, Y. Gong, D. Lei, and X. He, Measurement 119, 18 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mech. Mater. (1)

Y. Hu, F. Liu, W. Zhu, and J. Zhu, Mech. Mater. 121, 10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Eng. (3)

L. Tian, L. Yu, and B. Pan, Opt. Laser Eng. 110, 272 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, and S. Wu, Opt. Laser Eng. 114, 60 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Xu, and Z. Gao, Opt. Laser Eng. 86, 132 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Struct. Health Monit. (1)

L. J. Butler, J. Xu, P. He, N. Gibbons, S. Dirar, C. R. Middleton, and M. Z. Elshafie, Struct. Health Monit. 17, 635 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer, 2013), Vol. 9.

M. A. Sutton, J. J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements: Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications (Springer, 2009).

P. Rastogi, Digital Optical Measurement Techniques and Applications (Artech House, 2015).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Optical configurations of dual-FOV laser speckle imaging system for sensing of strain.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a)–(c) Laser speckle patterns with inferior, optimal, and oversampling, respectively, and their 2D-FFT (insets); (d) ZNNC-based autocorrelation of speckle patterns with inferior, optical, and oversampling; (e) the effects of laser speckle radii on pattern qualities.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup of LSOS validation tests.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) and (c) Strain results under ramp and sine wave loads, respectively; (b) and (d) corresponding strain errors.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Setup of field tests for strain monitoring on a rail track; comparisons between strain gauges and LSOS measurement. (b) Test 1, train coach travels from left to right; (c) Test 2, train coach travels from right to left.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Specifications of Critical Optical Parts

Equations (2)

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d s p = 1.22 λ F b ( 1 + M ) ,
C = ( f [ x , y ] f ¯ ) ( g [ x , y ] g ¯ ) ( f [ x , y ] f ¯ ) 2 ( g [ x , y ] g ¯ ) 2 ,

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