Abstract

We propose UV–IR femtosecond laser hybrid lithography for the efficient printing of complex on-chip waveguides, which offers good performance in terms of processing efficiency and accuracy. With this three-dimensional printing technology, waveguides with complex cross-section shapes, such as owls and kittens, can be easily fabricated with an efficiency increased by 1500% (for ${6}\;\unicode{x00B5} {\rm m}\; \times \;{6}\;\unicode{x00B5} {\rm m}$). In addition, a circular cross-section waveguide with an extremely low birefringence and complex ${8} \times {8}$ random walk networks were quickly customized, which implies that in the design and preparation of the large-scale optical chips, the proposed maskless method allows for the preparation of highly customized devices.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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