Abstract

We demonstrate a pyrometric contact-less temperature sensor using a flexible fused silica fiber of 360 µm diameter able to measure down to 30°C with a precision better than 1°C at 10 Hz. Silica fibers, as opposed to dedicated mid-IR fibers, are non-degrading, low-cost, and bio-compatible. The large bandwidth (up to several kilohertz) and the broad temperature range (up to 235°C) of the sensor can be instrumental for time-resolved analysis and control of laser ablation and electrothermal surgery procedures.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. G. Assimos, J. Urol. 193, 898 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Denton Brown, “Methods and apparatus for preventing damage to optical fibers caused by thermal runaway,” U.S. patentUS20090149845A1 (6June2009).
  4. B. Müller and U. Renz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3366 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Saccomandi, E. Schena, and S. Silvestri, Int. J. Hyperthermia 29, 609 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Shibasaki, N. Kondo, H. Tominaga, K. Aoki, E. Hasegawa, Y. Idota, and T. Moriwaki, J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 921 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. M. Arthur, W. L. Straube, J. W. Trobaugh, and E. G. Moros, Int. J. Hyperthermia 21, 589 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Michalski, K. Eckersdorf, J. Kucharski, and J. McGhee, Temperature Measurement (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 9.
  9. D. E. Wood, “Infrared clinical thermometer,” U.S. patent4895164 (23January1990).
  10. F. Bellifemine, “Method and device for measuring the internal body temperature of a patient,” U.S. patentUS20130215928A1 (22August2013).
  11. G. J. O’Hara, “Method and apparatus for measuring internal body temperature utilizing infrared emissions,” U.S. patent4,602,642 (29July1986).
  12. Chalcogenide IR-Fibers–art photonicsArt Photonics, 2019, https://artphotonics.com/ .
  13. C. R. Elliott and G. R. Newns, Appl. Spectrosc. 25, 378 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Coates and D. Lowe, The Fundamentals of Radiation Thermometers (CRC Press, 2016).
  15. P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Schneider and H. Liu, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (Springer, 2007), Vol. 1.
  17. How is NETD of cooled cameras measured?Systems FLIR, 2019, https://flir.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/128 .

2015 (1)

D. G. Assimos, J. Urol. 193, 898 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

P. Saccomandi, E. Schena, and S. Silvestri, Int. J. Hyperthermia 29, 609 (2013).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. M. Arthur, W. L. Straube, J. W. Trobaugh, and E. G. Moros, Int. J. Hyperthermia 21, 589 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. Müller and U. Renz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3366 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Shibasaki, N. Kondo, H. Tominaga, K. Aoki, E. Hasegawa, Y. Idota, and T. Moriwaki, J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 921 (1998).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Aoki, K.

M. Shibasaki, N. Kondo, H. Tominaga, K. Aoki, E. Hasegawa, Y. Idota, and T. Moriwaki, J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 921 (1998).
[Crossref]

Arthur, R. M.

R. M. Arthur, W. L. Straube, J. W. Trobaugh, and E. G. Moros, Int. J. Hyperthermia 21, 589 (2005).
[Crossref]

Assimos, D. G.

D. G. Assimos, J. Urol. 193, 898 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ballico, M.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Battuello, M.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bellifemine, F.

F. Bellifemine, “Method and device for measuring the internal body temperature of a patient,” U.S. patentUS20130215928A1 (22August2013).

Bloembergen, P.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
[Crossref]

Coates, P.

P. Coates and D. Lowe, The Fundamentals of Radiation Thermometers (CRC Press, 2016).

Denton Brown, J.

J. Denton Brown, “Methods and apparatus for preventing damage to optical fibers caused by thermal runaway,” U.S. patentUS20090149845A1 (6June2009).

Eckersdorf, K.

L. Michalski, K. Eckersdorf, J. Kucharski, and J. McGhee, Temperature Measurement (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 9.

Elliott, C. R.

Fischer, J.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fox, N.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Frank, G.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, E.

M. Shibasaki, N. Kondo, H. Tominaga, K. Aoki, E. Hasegawa, Y. Idota, and T. Moriwaki, J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 921 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hollandt, J.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Idota, Y.

M. Shibasaki, N. Kondo, H. Tominaga, K. Aoki, E. Hasegawa, Y. Idota, and T. Moriwaki, J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 921 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ishii, J.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Johnson, C.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kondo, N.

M. Shibasaki, N. Kondo, H. Tominaga, K. Aoki, E. Hasegawa, Y. Idota, and T. Moriwaki, J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 921 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kucharski, J.

L. Michalski, K. Eckersdorf, J. Kucharski, and J. McGhee, Temperature Measurement (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 9.

Lee, F. T.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

H. Schneider and H. Liu, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (Springer, 2007), Vol. 1.

Lowe, D.

P. Coates and D. Lowe, The Fundamentals of Radiation Thermometers (CRC Press, 2016).

Machin, G.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matveyev, M.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

McGhee, J.

L. Michalski, K. Eckersdorf, J. Kucharski, and J. McGhee, Temperature Measurement (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 9.

Michalski, L.

L. Michalski, K. Eckersdorf, J. Kucharski, and J. McGhee, Temperature Measurement (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 9.

Moriwaki, T.

M. Shibasaki, N. Kondo, H. Tominaga, K. Aoki, E. Hasegawa, Y. Idota, and T. Moriwaki, J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 921 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moros, E. G.

R. M. Arthur, W. L. Straube, J. W. Trobaugh, and E. G. Moros, Int. J. Hyperthermia 21, 589 (2005).
[Crossref]

Müller, B.

B. Müller and U. Renz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3366 (2001).
[Crossref]

Newns, G. R.

O’Hara, G. J.

G. J. O’Hara, “Method and apparatus for measuring internal body temperature utilizing infrared emissions,” U.S. patent4,602,642 (29July1986).

Park, C. W.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Renz, U.

B. Müller and U. Renz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3366 (2001).
[Crossref]

Saccomandi, P.

P. Saccomandi, E. Schena, and S. Silvestri, Int. J. Hyperthermia 29, 609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sadli, M.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sakuma, F.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Saunders, P.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schena, E.

P. Saccomandi, E. Schena, and S. Silvestri, Int. J. Hyperthermia 29, 609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schneider, H.

H. Schneider and H. Liu, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (Springer, 2007), Vol. 1.

Shibasaki, M.

M. Shibasaki, N. Kondo, H. Tominaga, K. Aoki, E. Hasegawa, Y. Idota, and T. Moriwaki, J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 921 (1998).
[Crossref]

Silvestri, S.

P. Saccomandi, E. Schena, and S. Silvestri, Int. J. Hyperthermia 29, 609 (2013).
[Crossref]

Straube, W. L.

R. M. Arthur, W. L. Straube, J. W. Trobaugh, and E. G. Moros, Int. J. Hyperthermia 21, 589 (2005).
[Crossref]

Techavipoo, U.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tominaga, H.

M. Shibasaki, N. Kondo, H. Tominaga, K. Aoki, E. Hasegawa, Y. Idota, and T. Moriwaki, J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 921 (1998).
[Crossref]

Trobaugh, J. W.

R. M. Arthur, W. L. Straube, J. W. Trobaugh, and E. G. Moros, Int. J. Hyperthermia 21, 589 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ugur, S.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Van Der Ham, E.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Varghese, T.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wood, D. E.

D. E. Wood, “Infrared clinical thermometer,” U.S. patent4895164 (23January1990).

Wright, A.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yoon, H.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Z.

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zagzebski, J. A.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Int. J. Hyperthermia (2)

P. Saccomandi, E. Schena, and S. Silvestri, Int. J. Hyperthermia 29, 609 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Arthur, W. L. Straube, J. W. Trobaugh, and E. G. Moros, Int. J. Hyperthermia 21, 589 (2005).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Thermophys. (1)

P. Saunders, J. Fischer, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Z. Yuan, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. Van Der Ham, F. Sakuma, J. Ishii, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen, and S. Ugur, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1066 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

M. Shibasaki, N. Kondo, H. Tominaga, K. Aoki, E. Hasegawa, Y. Idota, and T. Moriwaki, J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 921 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Urol. (1)

D. G. Assimos, J. Urol. 193, 898 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. Müller and U. Renz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3366 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28, 321 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

J. Denton Brown, “Methods and apparatus for preventing damage to optical fibers caused by thermal runaway,” U.S. patentUS20090149845A1 (6June2009).

L. Michalski, K. Eckersdorf, J. Kucharski, and J. McGhee, Temperature Measurement (Wiley, 2001), Vol. 9.

D. E. Wood, “Infrared clinical thermometer,” U.S. patent4895164 (23January1990).

F. Bellifemine, “Method and device for measuring the internal body temperature of a patient,” U.S. patentUS20130215928A1 (22August2013).

G. J. O’Hara, “Method and apparatus for measuring internal body temperature utilizing infrared emissions,” U.S. patent4,602,642 (29July1986).

Chalcogenide IR-Fibers–art photonicsArt Photonics, 2019, https://artphotonics.com/ .

P. Coates and D. Lowe, The Fundamentals of Radiation Thermometers (CRC Press, 2016).

H. Schneider and H. Liu, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (Springer, 2007), Vol. 1.

How is NETD of cooled cameras measured?Systems FLIR, 2019, https://flir.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/128 .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Simplified representation of the endoscopic temperature sensor. A multimode silica fiber collects the blackbody radiation from the treated area that covers its entire FoV. The collected light is modulated by a mechanical chopper for lock-in detection.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Spectral power distribution of an ideal blackbody radiator at 36°C (gray) and modeled collection efficiency of the proposed NIR pyrometry setup.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Output signal from the pyrometry system modeled after Eq. (6) (assuming $ \varepsilon = 1 $ ) compared with the experimental datapoints obtained through three consecutive calibration runs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Long-term evolution of the measured temperature (red) through 1 h for different object temperatures (36°C, 100°C, and 175°C), compared with the reference temperature (black). The zoomed-in plots show fluctuations arising from the temperature controller at high temperatures.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparison of modeled and measured noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) versus object temperature for the implemented pyrometer.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Temperature evolution of ex vivo tissue heated by a high-power LED, measured by the proposed fiber sensor and compared with a commercial thermal camera.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B λ ( λ , T ) = ε ( λ , T ) 2 h c 2 λ 5 1 e h c λ k B T 1 ,
G = A f i b e r Ω f i b e r ,
Ω f i b e r = π N A f i b e r 2 = π ( sin θ m a x ) 2 ,
P o p t ( λ , T ) = B λ ( λ , T ) G .
P d e t ( λ , T ) = η f i b e r ( λ ) η o p t i c s ( λ ) η d e t e c t o r ( λ ) B λ ( λ , T ) G ,
V ( T ) = λ P d e t ( λ , T ) R ( λ ) A V / A d λ ,
S ( T ) = ε C exp ( c 2 A T + B ) 1 ,
T = 1 ε [ c 2 A ln ( C S + 1 ) B A ] .
I s i g n a l = μ e h ν S ,
i 2 ¯ t o t a l = 2 eB ( I s i g n a l + I b a c k g r o u n d + I d a r k ) + i 2 ¯ e x c e s s .
S p p = S f i b e r ( T o b j e c t ) S c h o p p e r ( T c h o p p e r )
δ T δ S | T = [ [ S ( T ) ] 2 A c 2 C ( A T + B ) 2 exp ( c 2 A T + B ) ] 1 .

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