Abstract

An adaptable, laser-diode-based illumination system was developed to simultaneously visualize the dynamics of slow and fast phenomena in optically transparent media. The system can be coupled with still or high-speed cameras and makes it possible to generate an arbitrary train of illumination pulses with a variable pulse duration, pulse energy, and an intrapulse delay with a temporal resolution of 12.5 ns. Its capabilities are presented with selected illustrative visualizations of the dynamics of the shock waves and the cavitation entities generated after the laser-induced breakdown in water.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. P. K. Panigrahi and K. Muralidhar, in Schlieren and Shadowgraph Methods in Heat and Mass Transfer (Springer, 2012), pp. 23–46.
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  7. O. Supponen, D. Obreschkow, P. Kobel, M. Tinguely, N. Dorsaz, and M. Farhat, Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093601 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Petkovšek and P. Gregorčič, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 044909 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  10. R. Kuroda and S. Sugawa, Proc. SPIE 10328, 1032802 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. C. T. Wilson, T. L. Hall, E. Johnsen, L. Mancia, M. Rodriguez, J. E. Lundt, T. Colonius, D. L. Henann, C. Franck, Z. Xu, and J. R. Sukovich, Phys. Rev. E 99, 043103 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Perhavec and J. Diaci, Strojniski Vestnik 56, 477 (2010).
  14. A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. E. Willert, D. M. Mitchell, and J. Soria, Exp. Fluids 53, 413 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Kedenburg, M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, and H. Giessen, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1588 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. H. Hosseini, S. Moosavi-Nejad, H. Akiyama, and V. Menezes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 103701 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. E. Bloomfield, W. J. Lo, and P. A. Lewin, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1397 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. M. Carcione and H. B. Helle, Geophysics 69, 825 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Ohtani and T. Ogawa, Mech. Eng. J. 3, 16 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. L. P. Geldart and R. E. Sheriff, Problems in Exploration Seismology and Their Solutions (Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2004).
  23. D. K. L. Don-Liyanage and D. C. Emmony, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3356 (2001).
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  24. V. Eliasson, M. Mello, A. J. Rosakis, and P. E. Dimotakis, Shock Waves 20, 395 (2010).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. C. X. Pei, T. Fukuchi, H. T. Zhu, K. Koyama, K. Demachi, and M. Uesaka, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 2702 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  33. K. Ding and L. Ye, Laser Shock Peening—Performance and Process Simulation (CRC Press, 2006).
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    [Crossref]
  35. T. Kodama, M. R. Hamblin, and A. G. Doukas, Biophys. J. 79, 1821 (2000).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

C. T. Wilson, T. L. Hall, E. Johnsen, L. Mancia, M. Rodriguez, J. E. Lundt, T. Colonius, D. L. Henann, C. Franck, Z. Xu, and J. R. Sukovich, Phys. Rev. E 99, 043103 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

T. Požar, M. Halilovič, D. Horvat, and R. Petkovšek, Appl. Phys. A 124, 112 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

C. Y. Tao, G. Guo, Q. Y. Ma, J. Tu, D. Zhang, and J. M. Hu, J. Appl. Phys. 122, 014901 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Johansen, J. H. Song, K. Johnston, and P. Prentice, Ultrasonics 73, 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Kuroda and S. Sugawa, Proc. SPIE 10328, 1032802 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. S. Settles and M. J. Hargather, Meas. Sci. Technol. 28, 042001 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Supponen, D. Obreschkow, P. Kobel, M. Tinguely, N. Dorsaz, and M. Farhat, Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093601 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

K. Ohtani and T. Ogawa, Mech. Eng. J. 3, 16 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Yamamoto, Y. Tagawa, and M. Kameda, Exp. Fluids 56, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. A. Khokhlova, J. B. Fowlkes, W. W. Roberts, G. R. Schade, Z. Xu, T. D. Khokhlova, T. L. Hall, A. D. Maxwell, Y. N. Wang, and C. A. Cain, Int. J. Hyperthermia 31, 145 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. Hosseini, S. Moosavi-Nejad, H. Akiyama, and V. Menezes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 103701 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. E. Willert, D. M. Mitchell, and J. Soria, Exp. Fluids 53, 413 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kedenburg, M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, and H. Giessen, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1588 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. X. Pei, T. Fukuchi, H. T. Zhu, K. Koyama, K. Demachi, and M. Uesaka, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 2702 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

T. Perhavec and J. Diaci, Strojniski Vestnik 56, 477 (2010).

V. Eliasson, M. Mello, A. J. Rosakis, and P. E. Dimotakis, Shock Waves 20, 395 (2010).

2008 (1)

G. N. Sankin, Y. F. Zhou, and P. Zhong, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 4071 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. Petkovšek and P. Gregorčič, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 044909 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

J. M. Carcione and H. B. Helle, Geophysics 69, 825 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. E. Kennedy, G. R. ter Haar, and D. Cranston, Br. J. Radiol. 76, 590 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. K. L. Don-Liyanage and D. C. Emmony, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3356 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

P. E. Bloomfield, W. J. Lo, and P. A. Lewin, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1397 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Kodama, M. R. Hamblin, and A. G. Doukas, Biophys. J. 79, 1821 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Philipp and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 361, 75 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, H.

H. Hosseini, S. Moosavi-Nejad, H. Akiyama, and V. Menezes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 103701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Apazidis, N.

N. Apazidis and V. Eliasson, Shock Focusing Phenomena: High Energy Density Phenomena and Dynamics of Converging Shocks (Springer, 2018).

Apitz, I.

Bloomfield, P. E.

P. E. Bloomfield, W. J. Lo, and P. A. Lewin, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1397 (2000).
[Crossref]

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cain, C. A.

V. A. Khokhlova, J. B. Fowlkes, W. W. Roberts, G. R. Schade, Z. Xu, T. D. Khokhlova, T. L. Hall, A. D. Maxwell, Y. N. Wang, and C. A. Cain, Int. J. Hyperthermia 31, 145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carcione, J. M.

J. M. Carcione and H. B. Helle, Geophysics 69, 825 (2004).
[Crossref]

Colonius, T.

C. T. Wilson, T. L. Hall, E. Johnsen, L. Mancia, M. Rodriguez, J. E. Lundt, T. Colonius, D. L. Henann, C. Franck, Z. Xu, and J. R. Sukovich, Phys. Rev. E 99, 043103 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cranston, D.

J. E. Kennedy, G. R. ter Haar, and D. Cranston, Br. J. Radiol. 76, 590 (2003).
[Crossref]

Demachi, K.

C. X. Pei, T. Fukuchi, H. T. Zhu, K. Koyama, K. Demachi, and M. Uesaka, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 2702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Diaci, J.

T. Perhavec and J. Diaci, Strojniski Vestnik 56, 477 (2010).

Dijkink, R.

Dimotakis, P. E.

V. Eliasson, M. Mello, A. J. Rosakis, and P. E. Dimotakis, Shock Waves 20, 395 (2010).

Ding, K.

K. Ding and L. Ye, Laser Shock Peening—Performance and Process Simulation (CRC Press, 2006).

Don-Liyanage, D. K. L.

D. K. L. Don-Liyanage and D. C. Emmony, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dorsaz, N.

O. Supponen, D. Obreschkow, P. Kobel, M. Tinguely, N. Dorsaz, and M. Farhat, Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Doukas, A. G.

T. Kodama, M. R. Hamblin, and A. G. Doukas, Biophys. J. 79, 1821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eliasson, V.

V. Eliasson, M. Mello, A. J. Rosakis, and P. E. Dimotakis, Shock Waves 20, 395 (2010).

N. Apazidis and V. Eliasson, Shock Focusing Phenomena: High Energy Density Phenomena and Dynamics of Converging Shocks (Springer, 2018).

Emmony, D. C.

D. K. L. Don-Liyanage and D. C. Emmony, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Farhat, M.

O. Supponen, D. Obreschkow, P. Kobel, M. Tinguely, N. Dorsaz, and M. Farhat, Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fowlkes, J. B.

V. A. Khokhlova, J. B. Fowlkes, W. W. Roberts, G. R. Schade, Z. Xu, T. D. Khokhlova, T. L. Hall, A. D. Maxwell, Y. N. Wang, and C. A. Cain, Int. J. Hyperthermia 31, 145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Franck, C.

C. T. Wilson, T. L. Hall, E. Johnsen, L. Mancia, M. Rodriguez, J. E. Lundt, T. Colonius, D. L. Henann, C. Franck, Z. Xu, and J. R. Sukovich, Phys. Rev. E 99, 043103 (2019).
[Crossref]

Freidank, S.

Fukuchi, T.

C. X. Pei, T. Fukuchi, H. T. Zhu, K. Koyama, K. Demachi, and M. Uesaka, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 2702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Geldart, L. P.

L. P. Geldart and R. E. Sheriff, Problems in Exploration Seismology and Their Solutions (Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2004).

Giessen, H.

Gissibl, T.

Gregorcic, P.

P. Gregorčič and J. Možina, Opt. Lett. 36, 2782 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Petkovšek and P. Gregorčič, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 044909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.

C. Y. Tao, G. Guo, Q. Y. Ma, J. Tu, D. Zhang, and J. M. Hu, J. Appl. Phys. 122, 014901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Halilovic, M.

T. Požar, M. Halilovič, D. Horvat, and R. Petkovšek, Appl. Phys. A 124, 112 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hall, T. L.

C. T. Wilson, T. L. Hall, E. Johnsen, L. Mancia, M. Rodriguez, J. E. Lundt, T. Colonius, D. L. Henann, C. Franck, Z. Xu, and J. R. Sukovich, Phys. Rev. E 99, 043103 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. A. Khokhlova, J. B. Fowlkes, W. W. Roberts, G. R. Schade, Z. Xu, T. D. Khokhlova, T. L. Hall, A. D. Maxwell, Y. N. Wang, and C. A. Cain, Int. J. Hyperthermia 31, 145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hamblin, M. R.

T. Kodama, M. R. Hamblin, and A. G. Doukas, Biophys. J. 79, 1821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hargather, M. J.

G. S. Settles and M. J. Hargather, Meas. Sci. Technol. 28, 042001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Helle, H. B.

J. M. Carcione and H. B. Helle, Geophysics 69, 825 (2004).
[Crossref]

Henann, D. L.

C. T. Wilson, T. L. Hall, E. Johnsen, L. Mancia, M. Rodriguez, J. E. Lundt, T. Colonius, D. L. Henann, C. Franck, Z. Xu, and J. R. Sukovich, Phys. Rev. E 99, 043103 (2019).
[Crossref]

Horvat, D.

T. Požar, M. Halilovič, D. Horvat, and R. Petkovšek, Appl. Phys. A 124, 112 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, H.

H. Hosseini, S. Moosavi-Nejad, H. Akiyama, and V. Menezes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 103701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, J. M.

C. Y. Tao, G. Guo, Q. Y. Ma, J. Tu, D. Zhang, and J. M. Hu, J. Appl. Phys. 122, 014901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jerebtsov, S. N.

Johansen, K.

K. Johansen, J. H. Song, K. Johnston, and P. Prentice, Ultrasonics 73, 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

Johnsen, E.

C. T. Wilson, T. L. Hall, E. Johnsen, L. Mancia, M. Rodriguez, J. E. Lundt, T. Colonius, D. L. Henann, C. Franck, Z. Xu, and J. R. Sukovich, Phys. Rev. E 99, 043103 (2019).
[Crossref]

Johnston, K.

K. Johansen, J. H. Song, K. Johnston, and P. Prentice, Ultrasonics 73, 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kameda, M.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Tagawa, and M. Kameda, Exp. Fluids 56, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kedenburg, S.

Kennedy, J. E.

J. E. Kennedy, G. R. ter Haar, and D. Cranston, Br. J. Radiol. 76, 590 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khokhlova, T. D.

V. A. Khokhlova, J. B. Fowlkes, W. W. Roberts, G. R. Schade, Z. Xu, T. D. Khokhlova, T. L. Hall, A. D. Maxwell, Y. N. Wang, and C. A. Cain, Int. J. Hyperthermia 31, 145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khokhlova, V. A.

V. A. Khokhlova, J. B. Fowlkes, W. W. Roberts, G. R. Schade, Z. Xu, T. D. Khokhlova, T. L. Hall, A. D. Maxwell, Y. N. Wang, and C. A. Cain, Int. J. Hyperthermia 31, 145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kobel, P.

O. Supponen, D. Obreschkow, P. Kobel, M. Tinguely, N. Dorsaz, and M. Farhat, Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kodama, T.

T. Kodama, M. R. Hamblin, and A. G. Doukas, Biophys. J. 79, 1821 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kolomenskii, A. A.

Koyama, K.

C. X. Pei, T. Fukuchi, H. T. Zhu, K. Koyama, K. Demachi, and M. Uesaka, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 2702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, R.

R. Kuroda and S. Sugawa, Proc. SPIE 10328, 1032802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lauterborn, W.

A. Philipp and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 361, 75 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lewin, P. A.

P. E. Bloomfield, W. J. Lo, and P. A. Lewin, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1397 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lo, W. J.

P. E. Bloomfield, W. J. Lo, and P. A. Lewin, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1397 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lundt, J. E.

C. T. Wilson, T. L. Hall, E. Johnsen, L. Mancia, M. Rodriguez, J. E. Lundt, T. Colonius, D. L. Henann, C. Franck, Z. Xu, and J. R. Sukovich, Phys. Rev. E 99, 043103 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ma, Q. Y.

C. Y. Tao, G. Guo, Q. Y. Ma, J. Tu, D. Zhang, and J. M. Hu, J. Appl. Phys. 122, 014901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mancia, L.

C. T. Wilson, T. L. Hall, E. Johnsen, L. Mancia, M. Rodriguez, J. E. Lundt, T. Colonius, D. L. Henann, C. Franck, Z. Xu, and J. R. Sukovich, Phys. Rev. E 99, 043103 (2019).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, A. D.

V. A. Khokhlova, J. B. Fowlkes, W. W. Roberts, G. R. Schade, Z. Xu, T. D. Khokhlova, T. L. Hall, A. D. Maxwell, Y. N. Wang, and C. A. Cain, Int. J. Hyperthermia 31, 145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mello, M.

V. Eliasson, M. Mello, A. J. Rosakis, and P. E. Dimotakis, Shock Waves 20, 395 (2010).

Menezes, V.

H. Hosseini, S. Moosavi-Nejad, H. Akiyama, and V. Menezes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 103701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, D. M.

C. E. Willert, D. M. Mitchell, and J. Soria, Exp. Fluids 53, 413 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mocnik, G.

Moosavi-Nejad, S.

H. Hosseini, S. Moosavi-Nejad, H. Akiyama, and V. Menezes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 103701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Možina, J.

Muralidhar, K.

P. K. Panigrahi and K. Muralidhar, in Schlieren and Shadowgraph Methods in Heat and Mass Transfer (Springer, 2012), pp. 23–46.

Obreschkow, D.

O. Supponen, D. Obreschkow, P. Kobel, M. Tinguely, N. Dorsaz, and M. Farhat, Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, T.

K. Ohtani and T. Ogawa, Mech. Eng. J. 3, 16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ohtani, K.

K. Ohtani and T. Ogawa, Mech. Eng. J. 3, 16 (2016).
[Crossref]

Panigrahi, P. K.

P. K. Panigrahi and K. Muralidhar, in Schlieren and Shadowgraph Methods in Heat and Mass Transfer (Springer, 2012), pp. 23–46.

Parlitz, U.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pei, C. X.

C. X. Pei, T. Fukuchi, H. T. Zhu, K. Koyama, K. Demachi, and M. Uesaka, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 2702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perhavec, T.

T. Perhavec and J. Diaci, Strojniski Vestnik 56, 477 (2010).

Petkovšek, R.

T. Požar, M. Halilovič, D. Horvat, and R. Petkovšek, Appl. Phys. A 124, 112 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Petkovšek and P. Gregorčič, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 044909 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Petkovšek, J. Možina, and G. Močnik, Opt. Express 13, 4107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Philipp, A.

A. Philipp and W. Lauterborn, J. Fluid Mech. 361, 75 (1998).
[Crossref]

Požar, T.

T. Požar, M. Halilovič, D. Horvat, and R. Petkovšek, Appl. Phys. A 124, 112 (2018).
[Crossref]

Prentice, P.

K. Johansen, J. H. Song, K. Johnston, and P. Prentice, Ultrasonics 73, 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ramesh, K.

K. Ramesh, Digital Photoelasticity: Advanced Techniques and Applications (Springer, 2012).

Roberts, W. W.

V. A. Khokhlova, J. B. Fowlkes, W. W. Roberts, G. R. Schade, Z. Xu, T. D. Khokhlova, T. L. Hall, A. D. Maxwell, Y. N. Wang, and C. A. Cain, Int. J. Hyperthermia 31, 145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, M.

C. T. Wilson, T. L. Hall, E. Johnsen, L. Mancia, M. Rodriguez, J. E. Lundt, T. Colonius, D. L. Henann, C. Franck, Z. Xu, and J. R. Sukovich, Phys. Rev. E 99, 043103 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rosakis, A. J.

V. Eliasson, M. Mello, A. J. Rosakis, and P. E. Dimotakis, Shock Waves 20, 395 (2010).

Sankin, G. N.

G. N. Sankin, Y. F. Zhou, and P. Zhong, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 4071 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schade, G. R.

V. A. Khokhlova, J. B. Fowlkes, W. W. Roberts, G. R. Schade, Z. Xu, T. D. Khokhlova, T. L. Hall, A. D. Maxwell, Y. N. Wang, and C. A. Cain, Int. J. Hyperthermia 31, 145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schuessler, H. A.

Settles, G. S.

G. S. Settles and M. J. Hargather, Meas. Sci. Technol. 28, 042001 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. S. Settles, Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques: Visualizing Phenomena in Transparent Media (Springer, 2001).

Sheriff, R. E.

L. P. Geldart and R. E. Sheriff, Problems in Exploration Seismology and Their Solutions (Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2004).

Song, J. H.

K. Johansen, J. H. Song, K. Johnston, and P. Prentice, Ultrasonics 73, 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

Soria, J.

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Information of the evolution of cavitation structures, while perusing each frame separately, clearly illustrates the propagation of shock waves.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the setup for high-speed photography. Black dot, object deflecting the rays. Blue rays, outermost rays, defining the field of view. Red ray, the path of the nondeflected ray. Magenta ray, the path of the ray, deflected away from the knife edge. Orange ray, the path of the ray, deflected towards and obstructed by the knife edge. Labels, positive lenses ( ${\rm L}_{i}$ ).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Initial growth of a laser-induced cavitation bubble in water and shock wave emission illuminated with multiple visualization pulses using the MI:SF approach. (a) Four probe pulses at 1.25 µs, 2.0 µs, 17.0 µs, and 54.5 µs after laser breakdown. (b) Seven probe pulses at 1.25 µs, 2.0 µs, 11.4 µs, 30.1 µs, 48.9 µs, 67.6 µs, and 86.4 µs after the laser breakdown. Labels, boundaries of cavitation bubbles (B#) and shock waves (S#), where # stands for the number of the consecutive illumination pulse. White bar, 1 mm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Reflection of water-born shock wave from media with various acoustic impedances. (a) Free surface of water in vertical orientation (phase reversal at reflection), (b) aluminum plate (no phase reversal), and (c) PMP plate (no reflection). (a)–(c) Schlieren photographs in the MI:SF approach with the vertical knife filtering were illuminated with (a), (b) a triple and (c) a quintuple train of probe pulses. The part of the shock wave propagating towards the boundary is marked with A (black), the one traveling away from the boundary with B (black), and the reflected one with C (red). The shock waves were generated in water during optical breakdown. White bar, 1 mm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Shock wave refocusing in water at the position (Fa): (a) between the initial breakdown and the concave acoustic mirror and (b) farther away from the optical focus (Fo) imaged using the MI:SF approach. (a) Visual determination of the acoustic focus. (b) Shock wave scattering on a growing cavity. The thick solid curve marks the position of the acoustic mirror and the thin dashed lines show the path of four selected rays from the shock origin to the acoustic focus. White bar, 1 mm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a)–(f) Selected frames from the high-speed schlieren video providing a visual insight into the bubble and shock wave dynamics after an optical breakdown in water near a concave acoustic mirror (see Visualization 1). The video was obtained with a frame rate of 100 kfps using the MI:MF approach. White bar, 1 mm.

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