Abstract

Spatiotemporal optical coherence (STOC) imaging is a new technique for suppressing coherent cross talk noise in Fourier-domain full-field optical coherence tomography (FD-FF-OCT). In STOC imaging, the time-varying inhomogeneous phase masks modulate the incident light to alter the interferometric signal. Resulting interference images are then processed as in standard FD-FF-OCT and averaged incoherently or coherently to produce cross-talk-free volumetric optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the sample. Here, we show that coherent averaging is suitable when phase modulation is performed for both interferometer arms simultaneously. We explain the advantages of coherent over incoherent averaging. Specifically, we show that modulated signal, after coherent averaging, preserves lateral phase stability, enabling computational phase correction to compensate for geometrical aberrations. Ultimately, we employ it to correct for aberrations present in the image of the photoreceptor layer of the human retina that reveals otherwise invisible photoreceptor mosaics.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (5)

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

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[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

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[Crossref]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Apelian, C.

Augustin, M.

Auksorius, E.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baumann, B.

Boccara, A. C.

Boccara, C.

Borycki, D.

Bouma, B. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Choi, P. Hosseini, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, Opt. Lett. 39, 6062 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

Dasari, R. R.

de Boer, J. F.

Draxinger, W.

Drexler, W.

J. Fujimoto and W. Drexler, Introduction to Optical Coherence Tomography (Springer, 2008).

Dubois, A.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Franke, G.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J.

J. Fujimoto and W. Drexler, Introduction to Optical Coherence Tomography (Springer, 2008).

Garstecki, P.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Grieve, K.

Hain, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hamkalo, M.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hillmann, D.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hosseini, P.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huber, R.

Hüttmann, G.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Iftimia, N.

Jeong, S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Joo, J. H.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karamata, B.

Karpf, S.

Klein, T.

Ko, H.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kozon, L.

Lambelet, P.

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

Lecaque, R.

Lee, J.-S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lim, Y.-S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Merkle, C. W.

Moneron, G.

Nowakowski, M.

Park, Q. H.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pfäffle, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, T.

Pircher, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Salathé, R. P.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

So, P. T. C.

Spahr, H.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stremplewski, P.

M. Wojtkowski, P. Stremplewski, E. Auksorius, and D. Borycki, Photonics Lett. Pol. 11, 44 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Stremplewski, E. Auksorius, P. Wnuk, L. Kozon, P. Garstecki, and M. Wojtkowski, Optica 6, 608 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sudkamp, H.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Szkulmowski, M.

Tearney, G. J.

Thouvenin, O.

Vabre, L.

Wartak, A.

Wieser, W.

Winter, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wnuk, P.

Wojtkowski, M.

Xiao, P.

Yang, T. D.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yaqoob, Z.

Yun, S. H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, Nat. Photonics 9, 253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Photonics Lett. Pol. (1)

M. Wojtkowski, P. Stremplewski, E. Auksorius, and D. Borycki, Photonics Lett. Pol. 11, 44 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. 6, 35209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. Fujimoto and W. Drexler, Introduction to Optical Coherence Tomography (Springer, 2008).

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Computation aberration correction in the human IS/OS retinal layer
» Visualization 2       Computation aberration correction in the human IS/OS retinal layer
» Visualization 3       Computation aberration correction in the human IS/OS retinal layer
» Visualization 4       Computation aberration correction in the human IS/OS retinal layer. This visualization shows spatial spectra to indicate that Yellot's ring appears after the correcting phase for geometrical aberrations.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Two implementations of the STOC imaging in the form of FD-FF-OCT that utilizes SPM. (a) Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with the SPM placed in the sample arm. (b) Linnik interferometer (LI) with the SPM located before interferometer. (c) In STOC, we modulate the FD-FF-OCT signal in time with a set of $M$ (largely) uncorrelated phase patterns. (d) We can average the resulting signal ( ${U_1},{U_2}, \ldots {U_M}$ ) incoherently or coherently. However, only in the LI arrangement, the phase relation between the two arms is preserved, and we can benefit from the coherent averaging to improve the contrast, ${{C}_M}$ of the final image (e). Abbreviations: SPM, spatial phase modulator; BS, beam splitter; ${{C}_M}$ , Michelson’s contrast.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Two STOC-manipulated phasors with relative phase shifts of (a)  ${\Delta }\varphi = 0$ and (b)  ${\Delta }\varphi = \pi $ .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Numerical phase correction compensates for the defocus aberration in STOC imaging to achieve nearly the same resolution as in-focus. All images were acquired with FD-FF-OCT and STOC manipulation.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Removal of cross talk noise and optical aberrations in images of lens tissue. Cross talk is removed by STOC (left column), whereas defocus aberrations are removed computationally (right column).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. STOC imaging of the photoreceptor layer of the human retina in vivo (Visualization 1, Visualization 2, Visualization 3, and Visualization 4). (a) The cross-section (B-scan) with a green dashed rectangle indicating the IS/OS layer, which was corrected computationally to reveal photoreceptor cones (b) that were otherwise invisible (c). Red dashed curves divide the regions, where STOC was ON and OFF.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U 1 = U s + U n e i 0 , U 2 = U s + U n e i π ,
I i n c o h = 1 2 { | U 1 | 2 + | U 2 | 2 } = 1 2 { 2 | U s | 2 + 2 | U n | 2 + 2 R e [ U s U n ( e i 0 + e i π ) ] } = 1 2 { 2 | U s | 2 + 2 | U n | 2 } = I s + I n ,
I c o h = 1 2 | U 1 + U 2 | 2 = 1 2 | U s + U n e i 0 + U s + U n e i π | 2 = 1 2 | 2 U s + U n ( e i 0 + e i π ) | 2 = 2 I s .
I i n c o h ( M ) = 1 M m = 1 M | U m | 2 = 1 M m = 1 M | U s + U n e i φ m | 2 = 1 M m = 1 M { | U s | 2 + | U n | 2 + 2 R e [ U s U n e i φ m ] } = I s + I n + 2 M R e [ U s U n m = 1 M e i φ m ] .
I c o h ( M ) = 1 M | m = 1 M U m | 2 = 1 M | m = 1 M [ U s + U n e i φ m ] | 2 = 1 M | m = 1 M U s + U n m = 1 M e i φ m | 2 .

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