Abstract

An 852 nm semiconductor laser is experimentally subjected to phase-conjugate time-delayed feedback achieved through four-wave mixing in a photorefractive ($ {{\rm BaTiO}_{3}} $) crystal. Permutation entropy (PE) is used to uncover distinctive temporal signatures corresponding to the sub-harmonics of the round-trip time and the relaxation oscillations. Complex spatiotemporal outputs with high PE mostly upwards of $ \sim 0.85 $ and chaos bandwidth (BW) up to $ \sim 31\;{\rm GHz} $ are observed over feedback strengths up to 7%. The low-feedback region counterintuitively exhibits spatiotemporal reorganization, and the variation in the chaos BW is restricted within a small range of 1.66 GHz, marking the transition between the dynamics driven by the relaxation oscillations and the external cavity round-trip time. The immunity of the chaos BW and the complexity against such spatiotemporal reorganization show promise as an excellent candidate for secure communication applications.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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