Abstract

The performance of planar geometry Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors of $26\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ diameter is presented. Record low dark count rates are observed, remaining less than 100 K counts per second at 6.6% excess bias and 125 K. Single-photon detection efficiencies are found to be up to 29.4%, and are shown to be temperature insensitive. These performance characteristics lead to a significantly reduced noise equivalent power (NEP) of $7.7 \times {10^{- 17}} \;{\rm W} {{\rm Hz}^{- \frac{1}{2}}}$ compared to prior planar devices, and represent a two orders of magnitude reduction in NEP compared to previous Ge-on-Si mesa devices of a comparable diameter. Low jitter values of $134 \pm 10\;{\rm ps} $ are demonstrated.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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