Abstract

Various beam shaping approaches were examined to counter the negative influence of surface aberration arising when inscribing optical waveguides deeply inside of glass with a femtosecond laser. Aberration correction was found unable to completely recover the low-loss waveguide properties, prompting a comprehensive examination of waveguides formed with focused Gaussian–Bessel beams. Diverging conical phase fronts are presented as a hybrid means of partial aberration correction to improve insertion loss and a new, to the best of our knowledge, means of asymmetric beam shaping. In this way, low-loss waveguides are presented over shallow to deep writing depth (2.8 mm) where morphological and modal properties could be further tuned with conical phase front.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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