Hybrid order Poincaré spheres to represent more general Stokes singularities are presented. Polarization singularities form a subset of Stokes singularities, and therefore induction of these spheres brings completeness. The conventional understanding of Poincaré beams as hybrid order Poincaré sphere beams is also expanded to include more beams. Construction and salient properties of these spheres are explained with illustrations to show their ability to represent more exotic Poincaré beams that have zero total helicity irrespective of their size. Pancharatnam–Berry geometric phase formulation using these new spheres is also possible.
© 2020 Optical Society of AmericaFull Article | PDF Article
17 September 2020: Typographical corrections were made to Eqs. (7) and (12) and on p. 5137 and p. 5138.
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