Abstract

We report multi-level modulation in polarization-independent surface-normal electro-absorption modulators (SNEAMs). Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) at a line rate of 44 Gb/s is demonstrated on a fully packaged SNEAM with a 30 µm active area diameter and a 14 GHz electro-optic bandwidth. High-capacity PAM-4 transmission at 112 and 160 Gb/s is demonstrated on an unpackaged SNEAM chip, with a 15 µm active area diameter and ultrawide electro-optic bandwidth (${\gg} {{65}}\;{\rm{GHz}}$). Fiber transmission is investigated for direct detection link lengths up to 23 km at 44 Gb/s and 2 km at 112 and 160 Gb/s, the highest multi-level modulation rates achieved on a SNEAM.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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2019 (1)

2018 (2)

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2015 (1)

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
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P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

Audet, R. M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

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P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

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Brunina, D.

Burrows, E.

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

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Cappuzzo, M.

Chandrasekhar, S.

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G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119 (1987).
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Chen, H.

Chen, X.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, Nature 562, 101 (2018).
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P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

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H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
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Chowdhuri, B.

Claussen, S. A.

De Coster, J.

De Heyn, P.

Ding, R.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
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S. Grillanda, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, H. Safar, M. Cappuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, N. Fontaine, and M. Earnshaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 804 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

Edwards, E. H.

El-Fiky, E.

English, J. H.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119 (1987).
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Farrington, N.

Fei, E. I.

Fiorentino, M.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
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Fontaine, N.

Golshani, N.

Gossard, A. C.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119 (1987).
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Grillanda, S.

S. Grillanda, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, H. Safar, M. Cappuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, N. Fontaine, and M. Earnshaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 804 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

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A. A. M. Saleh and I. M. I. Habbab, IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 839 (1990).
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Harris, J. S.

Heck, S. C.

R. A. Griffin, S. K. Jones, N. Whitbread, S. C. Heck, and L. N. Langley, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 158 (2013).
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Hochberg, M.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, T.-C.

S. Grillanda, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, H. Safar, M. Cappuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, N. Fontaine, and M. Earnshaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 804 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

Iannone, P.

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

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R. A. Griffin, S. K. Jones, N. Whitbread, S. C. Heck, and L. N. Langley, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 158 (2013).
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Kamins, T. I.

Kopf, R.

S. Grillanda, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, H. Safar, M. Cappuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, N. Fontaine, and M. Earnshaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 804 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

Kucharewski, N.

Kumar, R.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), paper Th4A.7.

Lai, C. P.

Langley, L. N.

R. A. Griffin, S. K. Jones, N. Whitbread, S. C. Heck, and L. N. Langley, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 158 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lepage, G.

Li, C.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, Nature 562, 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Low, Y.

S. Grillanda, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, H. Safar, M. Cappuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, N. Fontaine, and M. Earnshaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 804 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

McCall, S. L.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119 (1987).
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Miller, D. A. B.

Minkenberg, C.

Muth, K.

Nagra, A.

Neilson, D.

S. Grillanda, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, H. Safar, M. Cappuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, N. Fontaine, and M. Earnshaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 804 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

Neilson, D. T.

Nelson, D.

Palermo, S.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pantouvaki, M.

Patel, D.

Plant, D. V.

Qi, N.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Raybon, G.

S. Grillanda, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, H. Safar, M. Cappuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, N. Fontaine, and M. Earnshaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 804 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

Rickman, A.

Rodriguez, G.

Rong, H.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), paper Th4A.7.

Rong, Y.

Rubi, D.

Safar, H.

Sakib, M.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), paper Th4A.7.

Saleh, A. A. M.

A. A. M. Saleh and I. M. I. Habbab, IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 839 (1990).
[Crossref]

Samani, A.

Schaevitz, R. K.

Schrans, T.

Shafik, A.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shams-Ansari, A.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, Nature 562, 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sowailem, M.

Srinivasan, P.

Srinivasan, S. A.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), paper Th4A.7.

Tasyurek, E.

Tate, A.

S. Grillanda, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, H. Safar, M. Cappuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, N. Fontaine, and M. Earnshaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 38, 804 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

Titriku, A.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Verheyen, P.

Wang, B.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, Nature 562, 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Whitbread, N.

R. A. Griffin, S. K. Jones, N. Whitbread, S. C. Heck, and L. N. Langley, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 158 (2013).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, Nature 562, 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Xuan, Z.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C.

Yu, K.

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, Nature 562, 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zilkie, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Griffin, S. K. Jones, N. Whitbread, S. C. Heck, and L. N. Langley, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 158 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Li, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3145 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

A. A. M. Saleh and I. M. I. Habbab, IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 839 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Nature (1)

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, Nature 562, 101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (3)

J. Sun, M. Sakib, J. Driscoll, R. Kumar, H. Jayatilleka, Y. Chetrit, and H. Rong, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), paper Th4A.7.

P. Iannone, X. Chen, S. Grillanda, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, E. Burrows, T.-C. Hu, D. Neilson, N. Basavanhally, Y. Low, R. Kopf, A. Tate, and M. Earnshaw, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2020), paper SF3L.2.

“IEEE Std. 802.3bs,” http://www.ieee802.org/3/bs/ .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Typical cross section of a SNEAM. Photographs of (b) a fully packaged SNEAM, with a 30 µm active area diameter used for 44 Gb/s (22 Gbd) PAM-4 transmission, and of (c) an unpackaged SNEAM chip with 15 µm active area diameter used for PAM-4 transmission at 112 Gb/s (56 Gbd) and 160 Gb/s (80 Gbd).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Normalized reflected optical intensity versus the wavelength at different reverse bias voltages. (b) Normalized reflected optical intensity versus wavelength for 16 random polarizations. (c) Normalized small signal frequency response for the 30 µm diameter, packaged SNEAM of Fig. 1(b) (blue line) and the 15 µm diameter, unpackaged SNEAM chip of Fig. 1(c) (orange line).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Experimental setup used with a 30 µm diameter packaged SNEAM to measure the PAM-4 performance at 44 Gb/s. (b) 44 Gb/s PAM-4 electrical and optical eye diagrams measured with a sampling scope (no DSP). (c) Back-to-back BER as a function of the number of equalizer taps for EDFA and SOA booster amplifier cases. (d) BER as a function of the fiber length with 21 equalizer taps.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Setup with a 15 µm diameter SNEAM for measuring the performance at 112 Gb/s (56 Gbd) and 160 Gb/s (80 Gbd). (b) Reconstructed eye diagram (after DSP) for the received back-to-back 160 Gb/s (80 Gbd) PAM-4 optical signal. (c) BER performance at 112 Gb/s (56 Gbd) and (d) 160 Gb/s (80 Gbd). Performance for back-to-back (0 km), 1 km, and 2 km are shown at four wavelengths spanning 9 nm (1.1 THz).

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