Abstract

We designed and fabricated a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) thermo-optic switch with an inverted triangular waveguide. The inverted triangular waveguide achieves a fundamental mode in a large waveguide dimension, which can reduce the coupling loss and increase the extinction ratio. The triangular waveguide-based switch was simulated and presented higher heating efficiency and lower power consumption than that of the traditional rectangular waveguide-based switch. Compared with the traditional rectangular waveguide-based device, the power consumption of the proposed device is reduced by 60%. Spacing photobleaching was introduced to fabricate the inverted triangular waveguide and adjust the refractive index to minimize the mode number. The insertion loss of the typical fabricated device with a 2 cm length is about 7.8 dB. The device shows an extinction ratio of ${\sim}{8.1}\;{\rm dB}$ at 532 nm with a very low power consumption of 2.2 mW, and the switching rise time and fall time are 110 and 130 µs, respectively. The proposed single-mode waveguide and low-power-consumption optical switch have great potential applications in visible optical communication fields such as wavelength division multiplexing and mode-division multiplexing.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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