Abstract

We propose a strategy of temperature gradient assisted femtosecond laser writing for elaboration of low loss waveguides (WGs) over a large depth in glass. The matter flow driven by the temperature distribution is responsible for forming a highly densified WG core with tunable size. Importantly, the unique position of the guiding core outside the focus allows for abating the influence of laser energy redistribution and inscribing low loss deep WGs. A low insertion loss (${L_i}$) of 0.6 dB at 1550 nm is achieved for WGs at the depth from 300 µm to 900 µm. Establishing strong dependence of ${L_i}$ on the WG size offers a unique route to improve WG performance. These findings highlight that the present method would provide new opportunities for creating low loss WG lattices at large depth.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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