Abstract

The transport-of-intensity equation (TIE) is one of the most well-known approaches for phase retrieval and quantitative phase imaging. It directly recovers the quantitative phase distribution of an optical field by through-focus intensity measurements in a non-interferometric, deterministic manner. Nevertheless, the accuracy and validity of state-of-the-art TIE solvers depend on restrictive pre-knowledge or assumptions, including appropriate boundary conditions, a well-defined closed region, and quasi-uniform in-focus intensity distribution, which, however, cannot be strictly satisfied simultaneously under practical experimental conditions. In this Letter, we propose a universal solution to TIE with the advantages of high accuracy, convergence guarantee, applicability to arbitrarily shaped regions, and simplified implementation and computation. With the “maximum intensity assumption,” we first simplify TIE as a standard Poisson equation to get an initial guess of the solution. Then the initial solution is further refined iteratively by solving the same Poisson equation, and thus the instability associated with the division by zero/small intensity values and large intensity variations can be effectively bypassed. Simulations and experiments with arbitrary phase, arbitrary aperture shapes, and nonuniform intensity distributions verify the effectiveness and universality of the proposed method.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Code 1       MATLAB source code and dataset for all the simulations and experiments described in “On a universal solution to the transport-of-intensity equation”

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