Abstract

Plasmonic lithography can utilize evanescent waves to produce subdiffraction patterns. However, the high loss and shallow depth of patterns severely obstruct its application in practice. In this work, a large focal depth is achieved for deep subwavelength lithography. It is accomplished by employing radially polarized light to excite surface plasmons on a concentric annular grating and combining designed epsilon-near-zero metamaterial to select a high spatial frequency mode, which can shape an evanescent Bessel beam in a photoresist (PR). Moreover, the intensity distribution of the subdiffraction beam can be further enhanced and uniformized by adding reflective layers. It is shown that a needle-like beam with a focal depth of over 500 nm (${1.23}\lambda$) is formed in the PR layer, and the full width at half maximum of the beam is widened from only 80 nm (${0.2}\lambda$) to 94 nm (${0.23}\lambda$). The analyses indicate that this design is applicable for direct writing lithography to produce super-resolution patterns with small feature size, high aspect ratio, and strong field intensity.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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