Abstract

Directional couplers are extensively used in photonic integrated circuits as basic components for efficient on-chip photonic signal routing. Conventionally, directional couplers are fully encapsulated in the technology’s waveguide cladding material. In this Letter, we demonstrate a compact broadband directional coupler, fully suspended in air and exhibiting efficient power coupling in the cross state. The coupler is designed and built based on IMEC’s iSiPP50G standard platform, and hydrofluoric (HF) vapor-etching-based post-processing allows to release the freestanding component. A low insertion loss of 0.5 dB at $\lambda = {1560}\;{\rm nm}$ and a 1 dB bandwidth of 35 nm at $\lambda = {1550}\;{\rm nm}$ have been confirmed experimentally. With a small footprint of ${20}\;{\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}} \times {30}\;{\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}}$ and high mechanical stability, this directional coupler can serve as a basic building block for large-scale silicon photonic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) circuits.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (2)

C. Errando-Herranz, A. Y. Takabayashi, P. Edinger, H. Sattari, K. B. Gylfason, and N. Quack, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26, 8200916 (2020).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, A. Y. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Wang, A. Ribeiro, M. Jezzini, C. Errando-Herranz, G. Talli, K. Saurav, M. G. Porcel, P. Verheyen, B. Abasahl, F. Niklaus, N. Quack, K. B. Gylfason, P. O’Brien, and U. Khan, Proc. SPIE 11285, 1128503 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (3)

N. Quack, H. Sattari, A. Y. Takabayashi, Y. Zhang, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, P. Edinger, C. Errando-Herranz, and K. B. Gylfason, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 56(1), 8400210 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. J. Seok, K. Kwon, J. Henriksson, J. Luo, and M. C. Wu, Optica 6, 490 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Yu, S. Gao, Y. Lin, M. He, L. Liu, J. Xu, Y. Luo, and X. Cai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 161 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Rahim, T. Spuesens, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, Proc. IEEE 106, 2313 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, S. Rumley, M. Bahadori, and K. Bergman, Opt. Express 26, 16022 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

D. Melati, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 055502 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Thylén and L. Wosinski, Photon. Res. 2, 75 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 405 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y. Akihama and K. Hane, Sci. Appl. 1, e16 (2012).

1969 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).
[Crossref]

Abasahl, B.

W. Bogaerts, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, A. Y. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Wang, A. Ribeiro, M. Jezzini, C. Errando-Herranz, G. Talli, K. Saurav, M. G. Porcel, P. Verheyen, B. Abasahl, F. Niklaus, N. Quack, K. B. Gylfason, P. O’Brien, and U. Khan, Proc. SPIE 11285, 1128503 (2020).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

P. Absil, K. Croes, A. Lesniewska, P. De Heyn, Y. Ban, B. Snyder, J. De Coster, F. Fodor, V. Simons, S. Balakrishnan, and G. Lepage, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2017) p. 34.

Ahmed, S.

C. Errando-Herranz, M. Colangelo, S. Ahmed, J. Björk, and K. B. Gylfason, in IEEE 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017), pp. 293–296.

Akihama, Y.

Y. Akihama and K. Hane, Sci. Appl. 1, e16 (2012).

Baets, R.

A. Rahim, T. Spuesens, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, Proc. IEEE 106, 2313 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baeuerle, B.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bahadori, M.

Balakrishnan, S.

P. Absil, K. Croes, A. Lesniewska, P. De Heyn, Y. Ban, B. Snyder, J. De Coster, F. Fodor, V. Simons, S. Balakrishnan, and G. Lepage, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2017) p. 34.

Ban, Y.

P. Absil, K. Croes, A. Lesniewska, P. De Heyn, Y. Ban, B. Snyder, J. De Coster, F. Fodor, V. Simons, S. Balakrishnan, and G. Lepage, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2017) p. 34.

Bergman, K.

Björk, J.

C. Errando-Herranz, M. Colangelo, S. Ahmed, J. Björk, and K. B. Gylfason, in IEEE 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017), pp. 293–296.

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, A. Y. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Wang, A. Ribeiro, M. Jezzini, C. Errando-Herranz, G. Talli, K. Saurav, M. G. Porcel, P. Verheyen, B. Abasahl, F. Niklaus, N. Quack, K. B. Gylfason, P. O’Brien, and U. Khan, Proc. SPIE 11285, 1128503 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Quack, H. Sattari, A. Y. Takabayashi, Y. Zhang, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, P. Edinger, C. Errando-Herranz, and K. B. Gylfason, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 56(1), 8400210 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Rahim, T. Spuesens, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, Proc. IEEE 106, 2313 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

W. Yu, S. Gao, Y. Lin, M. He, L. Liu, J. Xu, Y. Luo, and X. Cai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 161 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chelladurai, D.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. K.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

Colangelo, M.

C. Errando-Herranz, M. Colangelo, S. Ahmed, J. Björk, and K. B. Gylfason, in IEEE 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017), pp. 293–296.

Croes, K.

P. Absil, K. Croes, A. Lesniewska, P. De Heyn, Y. Ban, B. Snyder, J. De Coster, F. Fodor, V. Simons, S. Balakrishnan, and G. Lepage, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2017) p. 34.

Cui, T.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L. R.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

De Coster, J.

P. Absil, K. Croes, A. Lesniewska, P. De Heyn, Y. Ban, B. Snyder, J. De Coster, F. Fodor, V. Simons, S. Balakrishnan, and G. Lepage, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2017) p. 34.

De Heyn, P.

P. Absil, K. Croes, A. Lesniewska, P. De Heyn, Y. Ban, B. Snyder, J. De Coster, F. Fodor, V. Simons, S. Balakrishnan, and G. Lepage, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2017) p. 34.

Duan, N.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Edinger, P.

W. Bogaerts, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, A. Y. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Wang, A. Ribeiro, M. Jezzini, C. Errando-Herranz, G. Talli, K. Saurav, M. G. Porcel, P. Verheyen, B. Abasahl, F. Niklaus, N. Quack, K. B. Gylfason, P. O’Brien, and U. Khan, Proc. SPIE 11285, 1128503 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Errando-Herranz, A. Y. Takabayashi, P. Edinger, H. Sattari, K. B. Gylfason, and N. Quack, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26, 8200916 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Quack, H. Sattari, A. Y. Takabayashi, Y. Zhang, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, P. Edinger, C. Errando-Herranz, and K. B. Gylfason, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 56(1), 8400210 (2019).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Errando-Herranz, C.

C. Errando-Herranz, A. Y. Takabayashi, P. Edinger, H. Sattari, K. B. Gylfason, and N. Quack, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26, 8200916 (2020).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, A. Y. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Wang, A. Ribeiro, M. Jezzini, C. Errando-Herranz, G. Talli, K. Saurav, M. G. Porcel, P. Verheyen, B. Abasahl, F. Niklaus, N. Quack, K. B. Gylfason, P. O’Brien, and U. Khan, Proc. SPIE 11285, 1128503 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Quack, H. Sattari, A. Y. Takabayashi, Y. Zhang, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, P. Edinger, C. Errando-Herranz, and K. B. Gylfason, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 56(1), 8400210 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Opt. Lett. 40, 3556 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Errando-Herranz, M. Colangelo, S. Ahmed, J. Björk, and K. B. Gylfason, in IEEE 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017), pp. 293–296.

Fang, Q.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fedoryshyn, Y.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fodor, F.

P. Absil, K. Croes, A. Lesniewska, P. De Heyn, Y. Ban, B. Snyder, J. De Coster, F. Fodor, V. Simons, S. Balakrishnan, and G. Lepage, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2017) p. 34.

Gao, S.

W. Yu, S. Gao, Y. Lin, M. He, L. Liu, J. Xu, Y. Luo, and X. Cai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 161 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gylfason, K. B.

C. Errando-Herranz, A. Y. Takabayashi, P. Edinger, H. Sattari, K. B. Gylfason, and N. Quack, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26, 8200916 (2020).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, A. Y. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Wang, A. Ribeiro, M. Jezzini, C. Errando-Herranz, G. Talli, K. Saurav, M. G. Porcel, P. Verheyen, B. Abasahl, F. Niklaus, N. Quack, K. B. Gylfason, P. O’Brien, and U. Khan, Proc. SPIE 11285, 1128503 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Quack, H. Sattari, A. Y. Takabayashi, Y. Zhang, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, P. Edinger, C. Errando-Herranz, and K. B. Gylfason, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 56(1), 8400210 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Errando-Herranz, F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, and K. B. Gylfason, Opt. Lett. 40, 3556 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Errando-Herranz, M. Colangelo, S. Ahmed, J. Björk, and K. B. Gylfason, in IEEE 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017), pp. 293–296.

Haffner, C.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

Hane, K.

Y. Akihama and K. Hane, Sci. Appl. 1, e16 (2012).

He, M.

W. Yu, S. Gao, Y. Lin, M. He, L. Liu, J. Xu, Y. Luo, and X. Cai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 161 (2019).
[Crossref]

Heni, W.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Henriksson, J.

T. J. Seok, K. Kwon, J. Henriksson, J. Luo, and M. C. Wu, Optica 6, 490 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Henriksson, T. J. Seok, J. Luo, K. Kwon, N. Quack, and M. C. Wu, in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (2018), pp. 1–2.

Jezzini, M.

W. Bogaerts, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, A. Y. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Wang, A. Ribeiro, M. Jezzini, C. Errando-Herranz, G. Talli, K. Saurav, M. G. Porcel, P. Verheyen, B. Abasahl, F. Niklaus, N. Quack, K. B. Gylfason, P. O’Brien, and U. Khan, Proc. SPIE 11285, 1128503 (2020).
[Crossref]

Josten, A.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Khan, U.

W. Bogaerts, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, A. Y. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Wang, A. Ribeiro, M. Jezzini, C. Errando-Herranz, G. Talli, K. Saurav, M. G. Porcel, P. Verheyen, B. Abasahl, F. Niklaus, N. Quack, K. B. Gylfason, P. O’Brien, and U. Khan, Proc. SPIE 11285, 1128503 (2020).
[Crossref]

Kinsey, N.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kwon, K.

T. J. Seok, K. Kwon, J. Henriksson, J. Luo, and M. C. Wu, Optica 6, 490 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Henriksson, T. J. Seok, J. Luo, K. Kwon, N. Quack, and M. C. Wu, in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (2018), pp. 1–2.

Lepage, G.

P. Absil, K. Croes, A. Lesniewska, P. De Heyn, Y. Ban, B. Snyder, J. De Coster, F. Fodor, V. Simons, S. Balakrishnan, and G. Lepage, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2017) p. 34.

Lesniewska, A.

P. Absil, K. Croes, A. Lesniewska, P. De Heyn, Y. Ban, B. Snyder, J. De Coster, F. Fodor, V. Simons, S. Balakrishnan, and G. Lepage, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2017) p. 34.

Leuthold, J.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, Nature 556, 483 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

W. Yu, S. Gao, Y. Lin, M. He, L. Liu, J. Xu, Y. Luo, and X. Cai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 161 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liow, T.

A. E. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. Tern, and T. Liow, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

W. Yu, S. Gao, Y. Lin, M. He, L. Liu, J. Xu, Y. Luo, and X. Cai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 161 (2019).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

T. J. Seok, K. Kwon, J. Henriksson, J. Luo, and M. C. Wu, Optica 6, 490 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Henriksson, T. J. Seok, J. Luo, K. Kwon, N. Quack, and M. C. Wu, in International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (2018), pp. 1–2.

Luo, Y.

W. Yu, S. Gao, Y. Lin, M. He, L. Liu, J. Xu, Y. Luo, and X. Cai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 161 (2019).
[Crossref]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the suspended directional coupler. The electric field profiles in the input and in the middle part of the coupler are depicted in the inset. Dimensions are not to scale.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Possible actuation mechanisms for a suspended directional coupler. The simulated transmission in the drop and through ports of the coupler versus (b) the lateral air gap between the coupled waveguides and (c) the vertical displacement of one of the coupler’s arms at $\lambda = {1550}\;{\rm nm}$ . (d) The electrical power profile in the coupler for a lateral gap of 150 nm and a vertical displacement of 0 nm at $\lambda = {1550}\;{\rm nm}$ .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Displacement field components for the suspended directional coupler under 300 MPa of (a) compressive stress and (b) tensile stress. The ${ u}$ , ${v}$ , and ${w}$ correspond to the displacement field components in the $X$ , $Y$ , and $Z$ directions, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Fabrication process flow for the post-processing on the wafer to release the suspended structures [18]. VHF, vapor hydrofluoric acid.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) BEOL with openings and alumina passivation. (b) Released suspended directional coupler. (c) Closer view of the waveguides in the middle part of the coupler just before the release step.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Schematic of the characterization setup. (b) Image of the photonic chip under test. (c) Optical microscope image of the chip area. (d) Transmitted power spectrum to the drop and the through ports of the coupler overlaid with the FDTD simulation results.