Abstract

We experimentally studied the transition dynamics between consecutive multi-pulsing states, specifically the build-up and annihilation of soliton pulses between a double pulsing and a three-pulse state, utilizing the dispersive Fourier transform technique. The birth of an additional pulse in a mode-locked soliton fiber laser in a multi-pulsing regime arises from a dispersive wave-induced narrow-band pulse that experiences strong intensity fluctuations, while the other soliton pulses maintain their shapes. During the decaying process to a double pulsing state, it is observed that all the pulses undergo a unique breathing behavior before settling into a steady state.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
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1999 (1)

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M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
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M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
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Genty, G.

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K. Goda and B. Jalali, Nat. Photonics 7, 102 (2013).
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He, J.-B.

Herink, G.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, Science 356, 50 (2017).
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G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, Nat. Photonics 10, 321 (2016).
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Hui, Z.

D. Han, Z. Hui, J. Xie, K. Ren, J. Gong, F. Zhao, J. Dong, D. Li, and X. Xin, Infrared Phys. Technol. 102, 102984 (2019).
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Ibarra-Villalon, H. E.

Jalali, B.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, Science 356, 50 (2017).
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G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, Nat. Photonics 10, 321 (2016).
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K. Goda and B. Jalali, Nat. Photonics 7, 102 (2013).
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Kieu, K.

Knox, W. H.

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749 (1998).
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A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 267, 162 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kurtz, F.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, Science 356, 50 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kutz, J. N.

Kuzin, E. A.

Lauterio-Cruz, J. P.

Leblond, H.

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 267, 162 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

D. Han, Z. Hui, J. Xie, K. Ren, J. Gong, F. Zhao, J. Dong, D. Li, and X. Xin, Infrared Phys. Technol. 102, 102984 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

G. Wang, G. Chen, W. Li, C. Zeng, and H. Yang, Photonics Res. 6, 825 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, A. Q.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

Liu, X.

X. Liu and M. Pang, Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800333 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and Y. Cui, Adv. Photonics 1, 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Cui, Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 023905 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luo, A.-P.

Luo, Z.-C.

Man, W. S.

W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, M. S. Demokan, and D. Y. Tang, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1139 (2001).
[Crossref]

Menyuk, C. R.

Merolla, J.-M.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Närhi, M.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nithyanandan, K.

Z. Q. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pang, M.

X. Liu and M. Pang, Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800333 (2019).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pilipetskii, A. N.

Pottiez, O.

Ren, K.

D. Han, Z. Hui, J. Xie, K. Ren, J. Gong, F. Zhao, J. Dong, D. Li, and X. Xin, Infrared Phys. Technol. 102, 102984 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ropers, C.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, Science 356, 50 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, Nat. Photonics 10, 321 (2016).
[Crossref]

Runge, A. F. J.

Sanchez, F.

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 267, 162 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sandstede, B.

Solli, D. R.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, Science 356, 50 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, Nat. Photonics 10, 321 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sorokina, M.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Sugavanam, S.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sylvestre, T.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. Y.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, M. S. Demokan, and D. Y. Tang, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1139 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, M. S. Demokan, and D. Y. Tang, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1139 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tarasov, N.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tchofo-Dinda, P.

Z. Q. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

Toenger, S.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Torres-Muñoz, O. S.

Tsia, K. K. M.

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Turitsyn, S. K.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, G. Chen, W. Li, C. Zeng, and H. Yang, Photonics Res. 6, 825 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Wang, K. Nithyanandan, A. Coillet, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, Nat. Commun. 10, 830 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wei, X.

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, B.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wise, F.

Wong, K. K. Y.

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

D. Han, Z. Hui, J. Xie, K. Ren, J. Gong, F. Zhao, J. Dong, D. Li, and X. Xin, Infrared Phys. Technol. 102, 102984 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xin, X.

D. Han, Z. Hui, J. Xie, K. Ren, J. Gong, F. Zhao, J. Dong, D. Li, and X. Xin, Infrared Phys. Technol. 102, 102984 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.-C.

Xu, Y.

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

G. Wang, G. Chen, W. Li, C. Zeng, and H. Yang, Photonics Res. 6, 825 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Yao, X.

X. Liu, X. Yao, and Y. Cui, Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 023905 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeng, C.

G. Wang, G. Chen, W. Li, C. Zeng, and H. Yang, Photonics Res. 6, 825 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, F.

D. Han, Z. Hui, J. Xie, K. Ren, J. Gong, F. Zhao, J. Dong, D. Li, and X. Xin, Infrared Phys. Technol. 102, 102984 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016616 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 72, 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Photonics (1)

X. Liu and Y. Cui, Adv. Photonics 1, 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Commun. Phys. (1)

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, Commun. Phys. 1, 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749 (1998).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

D. Han, Z. Hui, J. Xie, K. Ren, J. Gong, F. Zhao, J. Dong, D. Li, and X. Xin, Infrared Phys. Technol. 102, 102984 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

X. Liu and M. Pang, Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800333 (2019).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Er-doped soliton mode-locked fiber ring laser and DFT setup. (b) Optical spectrum recorded with an OSA (left) and retrieved from the DFT measurement (right) for a 2nd HML state.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Real-time recording of the transition dynamics from a 2nd HML to a three-pulse state. (a) Optical spectrum from an OSA. (b) DFT measurement over 880,000 cavity roundtrips. Pump power (66 mW to 78 mW, brown) and pulse dynamics (blue). (c) Close-up of the transition region of $\sim{1100}$ cavity roundtrips featuring strong amplitude fluctuations. (d) Retrieved energy of individual pulses. (e) 2D contour plot over 15,000 cavity roundtrips. (f) Close-up of new pulse evolution P2 from the small dotted area in (e). (g) 3D shot-to-shot spatial-temporal evolution from the large dashed box in (e). (h) Temporal-spectral cross sections for selective roundtrips during the new pulse formation process.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Real-time recording of the annihilation dynamics from a 3rd HML to a two-pulse state. (a) Optical spectrum from an OSA. (b) DFT measurement: pump power (71 mW to 61 mW, brown) and respective pulse dynamics (blue) over 880,000 cavity roundtrips. (c) 2D contour plot over 12,000 cavity roundtrips during the transition. (d) 3D shot-to-shot spatial-temporal evolution. (e) Total energy evolution during the pulse decaying process. (f) Retrieved spectral FWHM of the three individual pulses show a strong breathing behavior before one pulse disappears.

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