Abstract

Quantum noise limited interferometry for subhertz phase measurement is of essence in precision metrology applications, such as gravitational wave detection. However, suppression of subhertz classical noises below the shot-noise level is very challenging in practice. Two-frequency interferometry has been previously proposed to avoid low-frequency noises and may be useful for squeezing-enhanced high-precision phase measurement. Here we experimentally demonstrate a subhertz interferometer at the standard quantum noise (shot-noise) limit, by use of dual-frequency coherent probe light at the input and phase-sensitive heterodyne detection to measure the output interfered light. When the interferometer is locked at a dark fringe, the noise floor of the phase variance in the interferometer reaches the shot-noise level down to Fourier frequencies below 1 Hz. This work should pave a way for a realization of subhertz interferometry beyond the shot-noise limit.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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