Abstract

We study the dynamics of single-shot ultrafast laser ablation of a water–gas interface. We model the extremely nonlinear light–water interaction during the first picosecond by simulating the laser pulse propagation while dynamically calculating the spatial distribution of the dielectric function. We make use of a finite-difference time-domain algorithm to solve Maxwell’s equations and Rethfeld’s multiple rate equation model to consider the local excitation of a dense electron plasma. We validate our model by comparing the simulated transient reflectivity with experimental results and find excellent agreement.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Vreugdenhil, D. van Oosten, and J. Hernandez-Rueda, Opt. Lett. 43, 4899 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Clarijs, D. van Oosten, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 161109 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Wolbers, D. Krol, J. Dijkhuis, and D. Van Oosten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 606 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. Pan, Q. Wan, and G. Galli, Nat. Commun. 5, 3919 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Z. I. Nagy, A. Takács, T. Filkorn, and M. A. Sarayba, J. Refractive Surg. 2009, 25 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. H. Christensen and P. Balling, Phys. Rev. B 79, 155424(2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. X. Guo, F. Bourgeois, T. Chokshi, N. J. Durr, M. A. Hilliard, N. Chronis, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nat. Methods 5, 531 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

I. Apitz and A. Vogel, Appl. Phys. A 81, 329 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187401 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (3)

W. Wagner and A. Pruß, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 31, 387 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, E. N. Glezer, A. M.-T. Kim, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 10, 196 (2002).
[Crossref]

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, Nature 418, 290 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

L. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

Apitz, I.

I. Apitz and A. Vogel, Appl. Phys. A 81, 329 (2005).
[Crossref]

Assion, A.

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Balling, P.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. H. Christensen and P. Balling, Phys. Rev. B 79, 155424(2009).
[Crossref]

Baumert, T.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Englert, B. Rethfeld, L. Haag, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, Opt. Express 15, 17855 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ben-Yakar, A.

S. X. Guo, F. Bourgeois, T. Chokshi, N. J. Durr, M. A. Hilliard, N. Chronis, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nat. Methods 5, 531 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bialkowski, J.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bor, Z.

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bourgeois, F.

S. X. Guo, F. Bourgeois, T. Chokshi, N. J. Durr, M. A. Hilliard, N. Chronis, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nat. Methods 5, 531 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boutou, V.

Chisholm, A. D.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chokshi, T.

S. X. Guo, F. Bourgeois, T. Chokshi, N. J. Durr, M. A. Hilliard, N. Chronis, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nat. Methods 5, 531 (2008).
[Crossref]

Christensen, B. H.

B. H. Christensen and P. Balling, Phys. Rev. B 79, 155424(2009).
[Crossref]

Chronis, N.

S. X. Guo, F. Bourgeois, T. Chokshi, N. J. Durr, M. A. Hilliard, N. Chronis, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nat. Methods 5, 531 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cinar, H.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cinar, H. N.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Clarijs, J.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Clarijs, D. van Oosten, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 161109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Courvoisier, F.

Dijkhuis, J.

Dijkhuis, J. I.

Durr, N. J.

S. X. Guo, F. Bourgeois, T. Chokshi, N. J. Durr, M. A. Hilliard, N. Chronis, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nat. Methods 5, 531 (2008).
[Crossref]

Englert, L.

Favre, C.

Filkorn, T.

Z. I. Nagy, A. Takács, T. Filkorn, and M. A. Sarayba, J. Refractive Surg. 2009, 25 (2009).
[Crossref]

Freidank, S.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Galli, G.

D. Pan, Q. Wan, and G. Galli, Nat. Commun. 5, 3919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glezer, E. N.

Götte, N.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gruzdev, V.

V. Gruzdev, Phys. Rev. B 75, 205106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, S. X.

S. X. Guo, F. Bourgeois, T. Chokshi, N. J. Durr, M. A. Hilliard, N. Chronis, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nat. Methods 5, 531 (2008).
[Crossref]

Haag, L.

Haahr-Lillevang, L.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hernandez-Rueda, J.

M. Vreugdenhil, D. van Oosten, and J. Hernandez-Rueda, Opt. Lett. 43, 4899 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Clarijs, D. van Oosten, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 161109 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Hernandez-Rueda and D. van Oosten, “Dynamics of ultrafast laser ablation of water,” arXiv:1810.06946 (2018).

Hill, S. C.

Hilliard, M. A.

S. X. Guo, F. Bourgeois, T. Chokshi, N. J. Durr, M. A. Hilliard, N. Chronis, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nat. Methods 5, 531 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. H.

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ito, Y.

T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jelzow, N.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[Crossref]

Juhasz, T.

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kattawar, G.

Keldysh, L.

L. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

Kim, A. M.-T.

Köhler, J.

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kolomenskii, A.

König, K.

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, Nature 418, 290 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krasinski, J. S.

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Krol, D.

Krol, D. M.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Clarijs, D. van Oosten, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 161109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. M. Krol, J. I. Dijkhuis, and D. van Oosten, Opt. Lett. 38, 5032 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krueger, R. R.

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Liang, X.-X.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Linz, N.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

Nagy, Z. I.

Z. I. Nagy, A. Takács, T. Filkorn, and M. A. Sarayba, J. Refractive Surg. 2009, 25 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T. T.

T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, N.

Pan, D.

D. Pan, Q. Wan, and G. Galli, Nat. Commun. 5, 3919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pruß, A.

W. Wagner and A. Pruß, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 31, 387 (2002).
[Crossref]

Radzewicz, C.

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rethfeld, B.

Rowsey, J. J.

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sarayba, M. A.

Z. I. Nagy, A. Takács, T. Filkorn, and M. A. Sarayba, J. Refractive Surg. 2009, 25 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sarpe, C.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sarpe-Tudoran, C.

L. Englert, B. Rethfeld, L. Haag, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, Opt. Express 15, 17855 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schaffer, C. B.

Senftleben, A.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, A.

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Springer, M.

Stonecipher, K. G.

R. R. Krueger, J. S. Krasinski, C. Radzewicz, K. G. Stonecipher, and J. J. Rowsey, Cornea 12, 330 (1993).
[Crossref]

Strycker, B.

Takács, A.

Z. I. Nagy, A. Takács, T. Filkorn, and M. A. Sarayba, J. Refractive Surg. 2009, 25 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tanabe, R.

T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 21 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tirlapur, U. K.

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, Nature 418, 290 (2002).
[Crossref]

Traverso, A.

Trickl, T.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Turi, L.

T. Juhasz, X. H. Hu, L. Turi, and Z. Bor, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 91 (1994).
[Crossref]

van Oosten, D.

M. Vreugdenhil, D. van Oosten, and J. Hernandez-Rueda, Opt. Lett. 43, 4899 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hernandez-Rueda, J. Clarijs, D. van Oosten, and D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 161109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Wolbers, D. Krol, J. Dijkhuis, and D. Van Oosten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 606 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. M. Krol, J. I. Dijkhuis, and D. van Oosten, Opt. Lett. 38, 5032 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hernandez-Rueda and D. van Oosten, “Dynamics of ultrafast laser ablation of water,” arXiv:1810.06946 (2018).

Venugopalan, V.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vogel, A.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Apitz and A. Vogel, Appl. Phys. A 81, 329 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vogelmann, H.

N. Linz, S. Freidank, X.-X. Liang, H. Vogelmann, T. Trickl, and A. Vogel, Phys. Rev. B 91, 134114 (2015).
[Crossref]

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vreugdenhil, M.

Wagner, W.

W. Wagner and A. Pruß, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 31, 387 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wan, Q.

D. Pan, Q. Wan, and G. Galli, Nat. Commun. 5, 3919 (2014).
[Crossref]

Winkler, T.

T. Winkler, C. Sarpe, N. Jelzow, L. Haahr-Lillevang, N. Götte, B. Zielinski, P. Balling, A. Senftleben, and T. Baumert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 235 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Sarpe, J. Köhler, T. Winkler, M. Wollenhaupt, and T. Baumert, New J. Phys. 14, 075021 (2012).
[Crossref]

Winter, M.

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wolbers, S.

Wolf, J.-P.

Wollenhaupt, M.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Transient relative reflectivity images of the fs-laser-excited water surface during the first picosecond, previously reported in Ref. [23]. R o corresponds to the reflectivity for an unexcited water–air interface. The images share the same lateral scale ( 20 × 20 μm 2 ) and are represented using the same color scale.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Block diagram of the simulation procedure that combines 2D-FDTD with MRE for a pump (red) and probe (blue) cycles. (b) 2D-FDTD simulation box. Scattered and backreflected E and H values are stored within the whole simulation grid to extract the transient reflectivity and illustrate the transient scattering effects.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Simulated electric field of the pump beam ( 10 10 V / m ) and (b) the corresponding electron plasma density maps ( 10 20 cm 3 ) achieved 100 fs before (top row) and after (bottom row) the laser peak intensity. (c) Simulated electric field of the probe beam ( 10 8 V / m ) at 100 fs and 700 fs time delays.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental (markers) and simulated (solid lines) transient reflectivity for several time delays. The experimental data were reported by our group in Ref. [23].
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Graphs of the (a) electron plasma density and temperature and (b) total and thermal energies as a function of time. The dashed line in (a) shows the intensity profile of the laser pulse. The inset in (b) shows the radial dependence of the energy density (just below the surface) and the local pressure obtained after subtracting the energy required to overcome the enthalpy of evaporation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Water Properties Used in the Simulations

Equations (4)

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ρ ˙ 0 = W 1 pt ρ 0 + W SFI + 2 α ρ k , ρ ˙ 1 = W 1 pt ρ 1 + W 1 pt ρ 0 , ρ ˙ k 1 = W 1 pt * ρ k 1 + W 1 pt ρ k 2 , ρ ˙ k = α ρ k + W 1 pt ρ k 1 ,
k B T = 2 3 i = 0 k i ω ρ i i = 0 k ρ i , ρ ( r , t ) = i = 0 k ρ i ( r , t ) ,
Γ e e ( r , t ) = 4 π ϵ 0 e 2 6 m e ( k B T ) 3 / 2 , Γ ( r , t ) = Γ e p ( r , t ) + Γ e e ( r , t ) ,
ϵ ( r , t ) = ϵ water ω p ( r , t ) 2 ω 2 + i ω Γ ( r , t ) + 3 4 χ 3 | E ( r , t ) | 2 ,

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