Abstract

We demonstrate a structuring method for crystalline silicon using nanosecond laser internal irradiation followed by chemical etching. We show a dramatic dependence of the etch rate on the laser-writing speed. Enhanced isotropic etch rates of silicon by laser-induced internal damage were recently demonstrated with strong acids, but our results add the possibility to obtain reduced etch rates leading to different topographies. Material analyses indicate the possibility to efficiently produce high-aspect ratio channels, thanks to laser-induced porosities, as well as silicon micro-bumps due to highly stressed regions. This holds promises for fabricating microfluidic, photovoltaic, and micro-electromechanical systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

M. Saito and S. Kimura, AIP Adv. 7, 025018 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

L. Rapp, B. Haberl, C. J. Pickard, J. E. Bradby, E. G. Gamaly, J. S. Williams, and A. V. Rode, Nat. Commun. 6, 7555 (2015).
[Crossref]

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P. C. Verburg, L. A. Smillies, G. R. B. E. Römer, B. Haberl, J. E. Bradby, J. S. Williams, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Appl. Phys. A 120, 683 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2012 (1)

J. Oh, H.-C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 743(2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

E. Ohmura, F. Fukuyo, K. Fukumitsu, and H. Morita, J. Achiev. Mater. Manuf. Eng. 17, 381 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. W. Kolasinski, D. Mills, and M. Nahidi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1474 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Baldacchini, J. E. Carey, M. Zhou, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 22, 4917 (2006).
[Crossref]

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2003 (2)

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T. Baldacchini, J. E. Carey, M. Zhou, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 22, 4917 (2006).
[Crossref]

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O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
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Bellouard, Y.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

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J. Bonse, K.-W. Brzezinka, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Surf. Sci. 221, 215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Botton, G. A.

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bradby, J. E.

L. Rapp, B. Haberl, C. J. Pickard, J. E. Bradby, E. G. Gamaly, J. S. Williams, and A. V. Rode, Nat. Commun. 6, 7555 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. C. Verburg, L. A. Smillies, G. R. B. E. Römer, B. Haberl, J. E. Bradby, J. S. Williams, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Appl. Phys. A 120, 683 (2015).
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Branz, H. M.

J. Oh, H.-C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 743(2012).
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J. Bonse, K.-W. Brzezinka, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Surf. Sci. 221, 215 (2003).
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T. Baldacchini, J. E. Carey, M. Zhou, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 22, 4917 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chambonneau, M.

Chanal, M.

Clady, R.

M. Chanal, V. Yu. Fedorov, M. Chambonneau, R. Clady, S. Tzortzakis, and D. Grojo, Nat. Commun. 8, 773 (2017).
[Crossref]

Çolakoglu, T.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

Crawford, T. H. R.

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dugan, M.

Elahi, P.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ergeçen, E.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fedorov, V. Yu.

M. Chanal, V. Yu. Fedorov, M. Chambonneau, R. Clady, S. Tzortzakis, and D. Grojo, Nat. Commun. 8, 773 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fukumitsu, K.

E. Ohmura, F. Fukuyo, K. Fukumitsu, and H. Morita, J. Achiev. Mater. Manuf. Eng. 17, 381 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fukuyo, F.

E. Ohmura, F. Fukuyo, K. Fukumitsu, and H. Morita, J. Achiev. Mater. Manuf. Eng. 17, 381 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gamaly, E. G.

L. Rapp, B. Haberl, C. J. Pickard, J. E. Bradby, E. G. Gamaly, J. S. Williams, and A. V. Rode, Nat. Commun. 6, 7555 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grojo, D.

Haberl, B.

L. Rapp, B. Haberl, C. J. Pickard, J. E. Bradby, E. G. Gamaly, J. S. Williams, and A. V. Rode, Nat. Commun. 6, 7555 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. C. Verburg, L. A. Smillies, G. R. B. E. Römer, B. Haberl, J. E. Bradby, J. S. Williams, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Appl. Phys. A 120, 683 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hathaway, C. E.

P. A. Temple and C. E. Hathaway, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685 (1973).
[Crossref]

Haugen, H. K.

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hnatovsky, C.

Hübner, R.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huis in ’t Veld, A. J.

P. C. Verburg, L. A. Smillies, G. R. B. E. Römer, B. Haberl, J. E. Bradby, J. S. Williams, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Appl. Phys. A 120, 683 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. C. Verburg, G. R. B. E. Römer, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Opt. Express 22, 21958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ilday, F. Ö.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ilday, S.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Iwata, H.

H. Iwata, D. Kawaguchi, and H. Saka, Microscopy 67, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Iwata, D. Kawaguchi, and H. Saka, Microscopy 66, 328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

Kawaguchi, D.

H. Iwata, D. Kawaguchi, and H. Saka, Microscopy 67, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Iwata, D. Kawaguchi, and H. Saka, Microscopy 66, 328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kesim, D. K.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kiani, A.

Kimura, S.

M. Saito and S. Kimura, AIP Adv. 7, 025018 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kolasinski, K. W.

K. W. Kolasinski, D. Mills, and M. Nahidi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1474 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kononenko, V. V.

E. V. Zavedeev, V. V. Kononenko, and V. I. Konov, Laser Phys. 26, 016101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Konov, V. I.

E. V. Zavedeev, V. V. Kononenko, and V. I. Konov, Laser Phys. 26, 016101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Makey, G.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

T. Baldacchini, J. E. Carey, M. Zhou, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 22, 4917 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meixner, A. J.

J. Bonse, K.-W. Brzezinka, and A. J. Meixner, Appl. Surf. Sci. 221, 215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mills, D.

K. W. Kolasinski, D. Mills, and M. Nahidi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1474 (2006).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

Miwa, M.

Morita, H.

E. Ohmura, F. Fukuyo, K. Fukumitsu, and H. Morita, J. Achiev. Mater. Manuf. Eng. 17, 381 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mur, J.

Nahidi, M.

K. W. Kolasinski, D. Mills, and M. Nahidi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1474 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

Oh, J.

J. Oh, H.-C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 743(2012).
[Crossref]

Ohmura, E.

E. Ohmura, F. Fukuyo, K. Fukumitsu, and H. Morita, J. Achiev. Mater. Manuf. Eng. 17, 381 (2006).
[Crossref]

Osterman, N.

Pavlov, I.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Petkovšek, R.

Pickard, C. J.

L. Rapp, B. Haberl, C. J. Pickard, J. E. Bradby, E. G. Gamaly, J. S. Williams, and A. V. Rode, Nat. Commun. 6, 7555 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pirker, L.

Raizer, Y. P.

Y. B. Zel’dovich and Y. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, 1966).

Rapp, L.

L. Rapp, B. Haberl, C. J. Pickard, J. E. Bradby, E. G. Gamaly, J. S. Williams, and A. V. Rode, Nat. Commun. 6, 7555 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rayner, D. M.

Richter, D.

Rode, A. V.

L. Rapp, B. Haberl, C. J. Pickard, J. E. Bradby, E. G. Gamaly, J. S. Williams, and A. V. Rode, Nat. Commun. 6, 7555 (2015).
[Crossref]

Römer, G. R. B. E.

P. C. Verburg, L. A. Smillies, G. R. B. E. Römer, B. Haberl, J. E. Bradby, J. S. Williams, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Appl. Phys. A 120, 683 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. C. Verburg, G. R. B. E. Römer, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Opt. Express 22, 21958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Said, A.

Saito, M.

M. Saito and S. Kimura, AIP Adv. 7, 025018 (2017).
[Crossref]

Saka, H.

H. Iwata, D. Kawaguchi, and H. Saka, Microscopy 67, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Iwata, D. Kawaguchi, and H. Saka, Microscopy 66, 328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sanner, N.

Simova, E.

Smillies, L. A.

P. C. Verburg, L. A. Smillies, G. R. B. E. Römer, B. Haberl, J. E. Bradby, J. S. Williams, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Appl. Phys. A 120, 683 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tan, B.

Taylor, R. S.

Temple, P. A.

P. A. Temple and C. E. Hathaway, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685 (1973).
[Crossref]

Tokel, O.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tozburun, S.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Turan, R.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Turnali, A.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tzortzakis, S.

M. Chanal, V. Yu. Fedorov, M. Chambonneau, R. Clady, S. Tzortzakis, and D. Grojo, Nat. Commun. 8, 773 (2017).
[Crossref]

Venkatakrishnan, K.

Venkataramanan, V.

Verburg, P. C.

P. C. Verburg, L. A. Smillies, G. R. B. E. Römer, B. Haberl, J. E. Bradby, J. S. Williams, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Appl. Phys. A 120, 683 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. C. Verburg, G. R. B. E. Römer, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Opt. Express 22, 21958 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

Williams, J. S.

P. C. Verburg, L. A. Smillies, G. R. B. E. Römer, B. Haberl, J. E. Bradby, J. S. Williams, and A. J. Huis in ’t Veld, Appl. Phys. A 120, 683 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Rapp, B. Haberl, C. J. Pickard, J. E. Bradby, E. G. Gamaly, J. S. Williams, and A. V. Rode, Nat. Commun. 6, 7555 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, J.

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yavuz, Ö.

O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, H.-C.

J. Oh, H.-C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 743(2012).
[Crossref]

Zavedeev, E. V.

E. V. Zavedeev, V. V. Kononenko, and V. I. Konov, Laser Phys. 26, 016101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zel’dovich, Y. B.

Y. B. Zel’dovich and Y. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, 1966).

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T. Baldacchini, J. E. Carey, M. Zhou, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 22, 4917 (2006).
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O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
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K. W. Kolasinski, D. Mills, and M. Nahidi, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1474 (2006).
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T. Baldacchini, J. E. Carey, M. Zhou, and E. Mazur, Langmuir 22, 4917 (2006).
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E. V. Zavedeev, V. V. Kononenko, and V. I. Konov, Laser Phys. 26, 016101 (2015).
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H. Iwata, D. Kawaguchi, and H. Saka, Microscopy 66, 328 (2017).
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M. Chanal, V. Yu. Fedorov, M. Chambonneau, R. Clady, S. Tzortzakis, and D. Grojo, Nat. Commun. 8, 773 (2017).
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O. Tokel, A. Turnalı, G. Makey, P. Elahi, T. Çolakoğlu, E. Ergeçen, Ö. Yavuz, R. Hübner, M. Zolfaghari Borra, I. Pavlov, A. Bek, R. Turan, D. K. Kesim, S. Tozburun, S. Ilday, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 11, 639 (2017).
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Other (1)

Y. B. Zel’dovich and Y. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, 1966).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a), (b) Typical IR phase micrographs of modifications in bulk silicon written at 1.0 and 0.1 mm/s, respectively. These are obtained before etching, and the scale bar applies to both images. (c), (d) are the NIC micrographs of the surface after etching. (e), (f), (g), and (h) are SEM characterizations of this surface. The vector k shows the laser direction of propagation.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. SEM image of an etched site written at 1 mm/s and 0.9 μJ obtained with (a) secondary electrons and (b) backscattering electrons. The vector k shows the laser direction of propagation. The blue and yellow arrows indicate the sample surface and subsurface cracks, respectively. The spatial scale applies to both images.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) SEM image of an etched site written at 0.1 mm/s and 0.9 μJ. (b) TEM image of the same site corresponding to the dotted red line in (a). (c) TEM magnification of the dotted blue square in (b). The vector k shows the laser direction of propagation. (d) Electron diffraction pattern observed in (c). (e) Micro-Raman spectrum of the site observed in (a), with monocrystalline features of silicon according to Ref. [23] indicated by the blue arrows.

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